BioMed Research International / 2016 / Article / Fig 4

Clinical Study

Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

Figure 4

Mechanisms of intra-articular and intraosseous injections of platelet rich plasma. Depiction of a new strategy to treat severe knee OA by targeting different knee joint structures such as synovial membrane (SM), synovial fluid (SF), articular cartilage (AC) with noncalcified cartilage (NCC) and calcified cartilage (CC), and subchondral bone (SB) with intra-articular injections (IA) and intraosseous infiltrations (IO) of platelet rich plasma (PRP) [24]. This procedure reduces pain and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in SF, besides significantly improving knee joint function of patients with severe OA. We suggest that various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines trapped in the fibrin network of PRP might inhibit the NFκβ on synovial macrophages, fibroblasts as well as on chondrocytes, thereby dampening the inflammatory response of SM and AC [1518]. In addition, IO in subchondral bone, might buffer the excess of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) as well as restore hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activity synthesized by osteoblasts, thereby leading to a new reestablished homeostatic balance between TGF-β1 and HGF [3537]. The buffer effect of PRP on TGF-β1 signalling pathway in SB might reduce the presence of nestin MSCs in SF, likely associated with the shrinking of fibroneurovascular tissue in the SB, as an antifibrotic mechanism which has already been reported on other cell phenotypes [36, 37].

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