Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 5040814, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5040814
Review Article

Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Enhanced Optical Tomography

1Center for Molecular Imaging, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA

Received 1 July 2016; Accepted 25 August 2016

Academic Editor: Shouping Zhu

Copyright © 2016 Banghe Zhu and Anuradha Godavarty. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, “Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. R1-–R43, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Zhu, J. C. Rasmussen, Y. Lu, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Reduction of excitation light leakage to improve near-infrared fluorescence imaging for tissue surface and deep tissue imaging,” Medical Physics, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 5961–5970, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini et al., “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 12, pp. 6468–6473, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. M. Sevick-Muraca, A. Godavarty, J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, and R. Roy, Fluorescence in Biomedicine, 2003.
  5. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton microscopy in biological research,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 603–608, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging,” European Radiology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 195–208, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Zhu and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A review of performance of near-infrared fluorescence imaging devices used in clinical studies,” The British Journal of Radiology, vol. 88, no. 1045, Article ID 20140547, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Zhu and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Minimizing excitation light leakage and maximizing measurement sensitivity for molecular imaging with near-infrared fluorescence,” Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 301–307, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 313–320, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 13, no. 4, Article ID 041302, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. H. Hielscher, A. Y. Bluestone, G. S. Abdoulaev et al., “Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography,” Disease Markers, vol. 18, no. 5-6, pp. 313–337, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Ishimaru, “Diffusion of light in turbid material,” Applied Optics, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2210–2215, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Applied Optics, vol. 28, pp. 2331–2336, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  14. E. M. Sevick-Muraca and C. L. Burch, “Origin of phosphorescence signals reemitted from tissues,” Optics Letters, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1928–1930, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. S. Patterson and B. W. Pogue, “Mathematical model for time-resolved and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy in biological tissues,” Applied Optics, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1963–1974, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. L. Hutchinson, J. R. Lakowicz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing in tissues: a computational study,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 1574–1582, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, vol. 47, pp. 555–606, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Kuwana and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiply scattering media with dyes exhibiting multiexponential decay kinetics,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 1165–1176, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Godavarty, M. J. Eppstein, C. Zhang et al., “Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1701–1720, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Zhu, J. C. Rasmussen, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Non-invasive fluorescence imaging under ambient light conditions using a modulated ICCD and laser diode,” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 562–572, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, M. Gurfinkel, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Sensitivity and depth penetration of NIR fluorescence contrast enhanced imaging,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 77, pp. 420–431, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Sevick-Muraca, E. Kuwana, A. Godavarty, J. P. Houston, A. B. Thompson, and R. Roy, “Near infrared fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy in random media and tissue,” in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Godavarty, D. J. Hawrysz, R. Roy, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, “Influence of the refractive index-mismatch at the boundaries measured in fluorescence-enhanced frequency-domain photon migration imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 10, no. 15, pp. 653–662, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, L. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “The influence of boundary conditions on the accuracy of diffusion theory in time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1957–1975, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Medical Physics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 879–888, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, T.-C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2727–2741, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Fantini, M. Franceschini, S. A. Walker, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, “Photon path distributions in turbid media: applications for imaging in Optical Tomog-raphy,” in Proceedings of the Photon Migration and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media; Theory, Human Studies and Instrumentation, vol. 2389 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 340–349, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, San Jose, Calif, USA, May 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, IEEE Press, New York, NY, USA, 1988. View at MathSciNet
  29. X. Li, D. N. Pattanayak, T. Durduran, J. P. Culver, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Near-field diffraction tomography with diffuse photon density waves,” Physical Review E, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 4295–4309, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. A. Markel, J. A. O'Sullivan, and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. IV. Nonlinear inversion formulas,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 903–912, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Yao, Y. Wang, Y. Pei, W. Zhu, and R. L. Barbour, “Frequency-domain optical imaging of absorption and scattering distributions by a Born iterative method,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 325–342, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Y. Paithankar, A. U. Chen, B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Imaging of fluorescent yield and lifetime from multiply scattered light reemitted from random media,” Applied Optics, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2260–2272, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, “Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency domain diffuse optical tomography,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1709–1729, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. J. Eppstein, D. E. Dougherty, T. L. Troy, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Biomedical optical tomography using dynamic parameterization and Bayesian conditioning on photon migration measurements,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2138–2150, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. C. Adams, “MUDPACK: multigrid portable fortran software for the efficient solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 113–146, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Medical Physics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 691–701, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Application of the finite-element method for the forward and inverse models in optical tomography,” Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 263–283, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Truncated Newton's optimization scheme for absorption and fluorescence optical tomography: part I theory and formulation,” Optics Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 353–371, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Chen, and J. Bai, “A novel finite-element-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography of heterogeneous media,” IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 766–773, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Adaptive finite element based tomography for fluorescence optical imaging in tissue,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 5402–5417, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Lu, B. Zhu, H. Shen, J. C. Rasmussen, G. Wang, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 4625–4645, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Fedele, M. J. Eppstein, J. P. Laible, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence photon migration by the boundary element method,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 210, no. 1, pp. 109–132, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Wu, Y. Lu, W. Zhang et al., “Time-domain diffuse fluorescence tomography using BEM forward solver,” in Proceedings of the Multimodal Biomedical Imaging VII, vol. 8216 of Proceedings of SPIE, International Society for Optics and Photonics, San Francisco, Calif, USA, January 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “A submillimeter resolution fluorescence molecular imaging system for small animal imaging,” Medical Physics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 901–911, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Z. Xu, X. Song, and J. Bai, “Singular value decomposition-based analysis on fluorescence molecular tomography in the mouse atlas,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 3739–3742, IEEE, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, September 2009.
  46. M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging in turbid media,” Optics Letters, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 158–160, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, “Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation,” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 893–895, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher, “Fluorescence tomography with simulated data based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Optics Letters, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1019–1021, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Lam, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, “Time domain fluorescent diffuse optical tomography: analytical expressions,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2263–2275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 757–760, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. V. Patwardhan, S. R. Bloch, S. Achilefu, and J. P. Culver, “Time-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 2564–2577, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 878–885, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Yi, D. Chen, W. Li et al., “Normalized Born approximation-based two-stage reconstruction algorithm for quantitative fluorescence molecular tomography,” Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2012, Article ID 838967, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  54. X. Intes, V. Ntziachristos, J. P. Culver, A. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Projection access order in algebraic reconstruction technique for diffuse optical tomography,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. N1–N10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Truncated Newton's optimization scheme for absorption and fluorescence optical tomography: part II reconstruction from synthetic measurements,” Optics Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 372–382, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Three-dimensional unconstrained and constrained image-reconstruction techniques applied to fluorescence, frequency-domain photon migration,” Applied Optics, vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 2206–2215, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Roy, A. B. Thompson, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Tomographic fluorescence imaging in tissue phantoms: a novel reconstruction algorithm and imaging geometry,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 137–154, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. K. Sahu, R. Roy, A. Joshi, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Evaluation of anatomical structure and non-uniform distribution of imaging agent in near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 25, pp. 10182–10199, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Active constrained truncated Newton method for simple-bound optical tomography,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1627–1641, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  60. M. J. Eppstein, D. J. Hawrysz, A. Godavarty, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Three-dimensional, Bayesian image reconstruction from sparse and noisy data sets: near-infrared fluorescence tomography,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 15, pp. 9619–9624, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. J. Hawrysz, M. J. Eppstein, J. Lee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Error consideration in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional optical tomography,” Optics Letters, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 704–706, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Godavarty, A. B. Thompson, R. Roy et al., “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 488–496, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Godavarty, C. Zhang, M. J. Eppstein, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging of large phantoms using single and simultaneous dual point illumination geometries,” Medical Physics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Zhu, M. J. Eppstein, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and A. Godavarty, “Noise pre-filtering techniques in fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 11285–11300, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Ge, B. Zhu, S. Regalado, and A. Godavarty, “Three-dimensional fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography using a hand-held probe based imaging system,” Medical Physics, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 3354–3363, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. J. Erickson, A. Godavarty, S. L. Martinez et al., “Hand-held optical devices for breast cancer: spectroscopy and 3-D tomographic imaging,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1298–1312, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Godavarty, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, and M. J. Eppstein, “Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography,” Medical Physics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 992–1000, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. J. Eppstein and D. E. Dougherty, “Simultaneous estimation of transmissivity values and zonation,” Water Resources Research, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 3321–3336, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, “A gradient-based optimisation scheme for optical tomography,” Optics Express, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 213–226, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, “Imaging of fluorescence in highly scattering media,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 810–822, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbour, “Improved reconstruction algorithm for luminescence optical tomography when background lumiphore is present,” Applied Optics, vol. 37, no. 16, pp. 3547–3552, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Shang, J. Bai, X. Song, H. Wang, and J. Lau, “A penalized linear and nonlinear combined conjugate gradient method for the reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography,” Journal of Biomedical Imaging, vol. 2007, no. 2, p. 11, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Shi, F. Liu, G. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Enhanced spatial resolution in fluorescence molecular tomography using restarted L1-regularized nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 19, no. 4, Article ID 046018, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Problems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. R41–R93, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  75. A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1285–1302, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. D. Klose, U. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Optical tomography using the time-independent equation of radiative transfer—part 1: forward model,” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 691–713, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. C. Rasmussen, A. Joshi, T. Pan, T. Wareing, J. McGhee, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Radiative transport in fluorescence-enhanced frequency domain photon migration,” Medical Physics, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 4685–4700, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Gao and H. Zhao, “Multilevel bioluminescence tomography based on radiative transfer equation part 1 : 11 regularization,” Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1854–1871, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Y. Lu, H. B. MacHado, Q. Bao, D. Stout, H. Herschman, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “In vivo mouse bioluminescence tomography with radionuclide-based imaging validation,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. D. Klose, V. Ntziachristos, and A. H. Hielscher, “The inverse source problem based on the radiative transfer equation in optical molecular imaging,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 323–345, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  81. K. Ren, G. Bal, and A. H. Hielscher, “Frequency domain optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1463–1489, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  82. H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Problems, vol. 25, no. 1, Article ID 015010, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  83. M. Schweiger, “GPU-accelerated finite element method for modelling light transport in diffuse optical tomography,” International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, vol. 2011, Article ID 403892, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus