BioMed Research International / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke

Table 1

Clinical and demographic characteristics.

Real-tDCS + RAT ()Sham-tDCS + RAT ()Total () value

Age (years)
 Mean (SD)52.7 (16.0)64.3 (9.7)58.2 (14.4)0.03
Sex (M/F)5/77/412/110.29
Stroke etiology (ischemic/hemorrhagic)10/29/219/40.28
Affected hemisphere (right/left)3/95/68/150.30
Stroke type (subcortical/ cortical)3/96/59/140.15
Stroke onset (weeks)
 Mean (SD)40.7 (35.1)78.2 (61.9)58.6 (52.2)0.22
 Median 2610848
Subacute stroke (<6 months)549
Chronic stroke (>6 months)7714
FMA-UE baseline
 Mean (SD)24.08 (16.60)21.45 (13.23)22.83 (14.85)0.73
BBT baseline
 Mean (SD)10.42 (15.47)6.55 (11.67)8.56 (13.62)0.60
MAL-AOM baseline
 Mean (SD)0.67 (0.9)0.59 (1.02)0.63 (0.94)0.70
MAL-QOM baseline
 Mean (SD)0.69 (1.01)0.59 (1.17)0.64 (1.07)0.77

tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; = number; SD= standard deviation; M/F = male/female; FMA-UE = Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity; BBT = Box and Block Test; MAL = Motor Activity Log; AOM = Amount of Movement; QOM = Quality of Movement; value = difference between real-tDCS + robot-assisted arm training group and sham-tDCS + robot-assisted arm training group.

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