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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 5185317, 6 pages
Research Article

Optimizing Human Bile Preparation for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4Department of Craniofacial Orthodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
5Graduate Institute of Craniofacial and Oral Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
6Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
7Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Received 6 September 2015; Accepted 21 December 2015

Academic Editor: Hannes Stockinger

Copyright © 2016 Hao-Tsai Cheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. Bile is an important body fluid which assists in the digestion of fat and excretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, an improved sample preparation for human bile was established. Methods and Material. The method involved acetone precipitation followed by protein extraction using commercially available 2D Clean-Up kit. The effectiveness was evaluated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) profiling quality, including number of protein spots and spot distribution. Results. The total protein of bile fluid in benign biliary disorders was 0.797 ± 0.465 μg/μL. The sample preparation method using acetone precipitation first followed by 2D Clean-Up kit protein extraction resulted in better quality of 2DE gel images in terms of resolution as compared with other sample preparation methods. Using this protocol, we obtained approximately 558 protein spots on the gel images and with better protein spots presentation of haptoglobin, serum albumin, serotransferrin, and transthyretin. Conclusions. Protein samples of bile prepared using acetone precipitation followed by 2D Clean-Up kit exhibited high protein resolution and significant protein profile. This optimized protein preparation protocol can effectively concentrate bile proteins, remove abundant proteins and debris, and yield clear presentation of nonabundant proteins and its isoforms on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gel images.