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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 5237148, 9 pages
Research Article

L-Malate’s Plasma and Excretion Profile in the Treatment of Moderate and Severe Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147 Essen, Germany

Received 7 March 2016; Revised 27 May 2016; Accepted 1 June 2016

Academic Editor: Swaran J. S. Flora

Copyright © 2016 Indra N. Waack et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. Malate is a standard component in fluid therapy within a wide range of medical applications. To date, there are insufficient data regarding its plasma distribution, renal excretion, and metabolism after infusion. This study aimed to investigate these three aspects in a rat model of moderate and severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to HS by dropping the mean arterial blood pressure to 25–30 mmHg (severe) and 40–45 mmHg (moderate), respectively, for 60 minutes. Subsequently, reperfusion with Ringer-saline or a malate containing crystalloid solution (7 mM, 13.6 mM, and 21 mM, resp.) was performed within 30 minutes, followed by an observation period of 150 minutes. Results. In the present experiments, malate rapidly disappeared from the blood, while only 5% of the infused malate was renally excreted. In the resuscitation interval the urinary citrate and succinate amounts significantly increased compared to control. Conclusion. Malate’s half-life is between 30 and 60 minutes in both, moderate and severe HS. Thus, even under traumatic conditions malate seems to be subjected to rapid metabolism with participation of the kidneys.