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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5829823, 8 pages
Research Article

Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
3Wuhan First Hospital of Stomatology, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430065, China
4Guiyang Hospital of Stomatology, Guiyang 550002, China

Received 14 March 2016; Revised 26 April 2016; Accepted 5 May 2016

Academic Editor: Nikos Chorianopoulos

Copyright © 2016 Yutao Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC50). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.