BioMed Research International / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

A Review of Animal Models of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Pathophysiology, Regeneration, and Translation to the Clinic

Table 1

Summary of animal models of disc degeneration.

AnimalNotochordal cells in adult intervertebral discMechanismReferences

MousePresentSpontaneous
Knockout: Col2a1 gene/type II collagenSahlman et al. [18]
Collagen IX mutationKimura et al. [38]
Mechanical
Tail bendingCourt et al. [39]
Bipedal mouseHiguchi et al. [40], Goff and Landmesser [36]
Instability: resection of posterior elementsMiyamoto et al. [41]

RatPresentSpontaneous
HLA-B27 and human β2-microglobulin gene transgenicHammer et al. [42]
Mechanical
Tail bendingLindblom [43]
Bipedal rat Goff and Landmesser [36]
Ilizarov-type apparatusIatridis et al. [44]
Cyclical compressionChing et al. [45]
Structural
Stab incisionRousseau et al. [46] and Jeong et al. [47]

Sand ratPresent Spontaneous
Laboratory dietSilberberg et al. [48], Gruber et al. [49], Moskowitz et al. [50]

RabbitPresentMechanical
External loading deviceKroeber et al. [51]
Adjacent segment fusionPhillips et al. [52]
Structural
Annulus punctureMasuda et al. [20]
Chemonucleolysis: chondroitinase ABCKiester et al. [53]
NP aspirationSakai et al. [54]

Canine
 Nonchondrodystrophoid dogPresentSpontaneousBergknut et al. [21]
Structural
Annular injury with scalpel/drillKeyes and Compere [55]
Subtotal discectomyHohaus et al. [56]
 Chondrodystrophoid dogAbsentSpontaneousGillett et al. [57] and Bergknut et al. [21]
Structural
Needle aspiration of NPSerigano et al. [58]
Chemonucleolysis: chymopapainMelrose et al. [59]

GoatAbsentStructural
Chondroitinase ABCHoogendoorn et al. [60]
Drill bit injury/annulotomyZhang et al. [22]

PigPresentStructural
NucleotomyAcosta et al. [61]

SheepAbsentStructural
Partial thickness annulotomyOsti et al. [62], Oehme et al. [63], Melrose et al. [64]
Annular incision and partial nucleotomy (simulated microdiscectomy)Oehme et al. [23]
Chondroitinase ABCGhosh et al. [65]

MacaquePresentSpontaneous
Age related degenerationNuckley et al. [66]

BaboonPresentSpontaneous
Age related degenerationLauerman et al. [24] and Platenberg et al. [25]

Rhesus monkeyPresentStructural
Annulotomy collagenase Stern and Coulson [67]
Bleomycin injection of subchondral boneWei et al. [68]

NP indicates nucleus pulposus.

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