Figure 1: Effects of VPA in kidney acute tubular necrosis and apoptosis. (a)–(c) Representative photomicrographs of kidney sections stained with PAS (×200). (a) SHAM group. (b) IRI group showing an intense acute tubular necrosis (ATN). (c) In the IRI + VPA group, ATN was attenuated. (d)–(f) Representative photomicrographs of kidney sections (×400) stained with the TUNEL technique. (d) SHAM group. (e) IRI group showing a high number of apoptotic cells characterized by the presence of apoptotic bodies identified by brown staining. (f) VPA treatment attenuated apoptosis. (g, h) Graphs presenting the ATN grades in all of the groups. (i) Graph presenting the quantification of apoptotic cells in all of the groups. Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. versus SHAM and IRI + VPA. versus SHAM.