Figure 4: Antioxidant effect of VPA on the IRI model. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured to evaluate the systemic oxidative stress in the IRI model. The IRI group showed a significant increase in the serum concentration of MDA. In contrast, the VPA treatment demonstrated an antioxidant effect. versus SHAM and IRI + VPA.