Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6019603, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6019603
Research Article

The Development and Validation of a Rapid Assessment Tool of Primary Care in China

1Institute of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China
2Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Primary Care Policy Center, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

Received 5 October 2015; Accepted 22 December 2015

Academic Editor: Alberto Raggi

Copyright © 2016 Jie Mei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Starfield, “Is primary care essential?” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8930, pp. 1129–1133, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Macinko, B. Starfield, and L. Shi, “The contribution of primary care systems to health outcomes within Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 1970–1998,” Health Services Research, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 831–865, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. Europe, The European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, WONCA Europe, Barcelona, Spain, 2002.
  4. World Health Organization, Alma Ata Declaration, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1978.
  5. S. Donaldson Molla, D. Yordy Karl, and V. Neal Arthur, Defining Primary Care: An Interim Report, National Academy Press, 1994.
  6. O. Bhattacharyya, Y. Delu, S. T. Wong, and C. Bowen, “Evolution of primary care in China 1997–2009,” Health Policy, vol. 100, no. 2-3, pp. 174–180, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Yang, L. Shi, L. A. Lebrun, X. Zhou, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Development of the chinese primary care assessment tool: data quality and measurement properties,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 92–105, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Wang, M. K. Gusmano, and Q. Cao, “An evaluation of the policy on community health organizations in China: will the priority of new healthcare reform in China be a success?” Health Policy, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Q. Liu, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and K. Cheng, “China's primary health-care reform,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9783, pp. 2064–2066, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Browne, “The long march to primary health care in China: from collectivism to market economics,” Public Health, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 2–3, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. The State Council of People's Republic of China, Guidelines for Furthering the Reform of Health-Care System, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, China, 2009 (Chinese), http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2009-04/06/content_1278721.htm.
  12. D. Blumenthal and W. Hsiao, “Lessons from the East—China's rapidly evolving health care system,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, no. 14, pp. 1281–1285, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. T. M. Cheng, “Early results of China's historic health reforms: the view from minister Chen Zhu. Interview by Tsung-Mei Cheng,” Health Affairs, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 2536–2544, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. X.-X. Zou, Y. Yao, W. Li, M.-G. Zhao, and Z. Liu, “Cognitive appraisal on hierarchical medical service system in China on the side of the referral patients,” Chinese Hospital Management, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 18–21, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  15. Z. Zhiguang, P. Ji, C. Jinquan et al., “Development of community health service in Bao'an District of Shenzhen,” Medicine and Society, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 4–7, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  16. L.-M. Hung, S. Rane, J. Tsai, and L. Shi, “Advancing primary care to promote equitable health: Implications for China,” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 11, no. 1, article 2, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Li, R. Y.-N. Chung, X. Wei et al., “Comparison of perceived quality amongst migrant and local patients using primary health care delivered by community health centres in Shenzhen, China,” BMC Family Practice, vol. 15, no. 1, article 76, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Thomas, Y. Hui, C. Browning et al., “Quality of care in different community health facilities in China: from patients points of view,” Chinese General Practice, vol. 10, no. 21, pp. 1760–1764, 2007 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  19. P. Yingchun, W. Yuan, C. Wenhu, L. Jun, and L. Wannian, “Study of evaluating index systemon the quality of general practice,” Chinese General Practice, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 158–160, 2004 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  20. W. Yun, X. Juyang, C. Yong, and Z. Liang, “Study on the index of performance evaluation of the community health service system at district level,” Chinese Primary Health Care, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 13–16, 2008 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  21. D. S. Kringos, W. G. Boerma, A. Hutchinson, J. van der Zee, and P. P. Groenewegen, “The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 10, no. 1, article 65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Starfield, L. Shi, and J. Macinko, “Contribution of primary care to health systems and health,” Milbank Quarterly, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 457–502, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. M. Campbell, M. O. Roland, and S. A. Buetow, “Defining quality of care,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1611–1625, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. G. Safran, M. Kosinski, A. R. Tarlov et al., “The Primary Care Assessment Survey: tests of data quality and measurement performance,” Medical Care, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 728–739, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. A. Flocke, “Measuring attributes of primary care: development of a new instrument,” The Journal of Family Practice, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 64–74, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Shi, B. Starfield, and J. Xu, “Validating the adult primary care assessment tool,” The Journal of Family Practice, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 161–164, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Ramsay, J. L. Campbell, S. Schroter, J. Green, and M. Roland, “The general practice assessment survey (GPAS): tests of data quality and measurement properties,” Family Practice, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 372–379, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. Wang, L. Shi, A. Yin, Y. Lai, E. Maitland, and S. Nicholas, “Development and validation of the tibetan primary care assessment tool,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 308739, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. Starfield, Primary Care: Balancing Health Needs, Services, and Technology, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  30. A. Donabedian, “Evaluating the quality of medical care,” The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 166–206, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. A. Malouin, B. Starfield, and M. J. Sepulveda, “Evaluating the tools used to assess the medical home,” Managed Care, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 44–48, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. L. Haggerty, F. Burge, M.-D. Beaulieu et al., “Validation of instruments to evaluate primary healthcare from the patient perspective: overview of the method,” Healthcare Policy, vol. 7, pp. 31–46, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Macinko, C. Almeida, and P. K. de Sá, “A rapid assessment methodology for the evaluation of primary care organization and performance in Brazil,” Health Policy and Planning, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. H. Lee, Y.-J. Choi, N. J. Sung et al., “Development of the Korean primary care assessment tool—measuring user experience: tests of data quality and measurement performance,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 103–111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. B. Rocha, M. Rodríguez-Sanz, M. I. Pasarín, S. Berra, M. Gotsens, and C. Borrell, “Assessment of primary care in health surveys: a population perspective,” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Wei, H. Li, N. Yang et al., “Comparing quality of public primary care between Hong Kong and Shanghai using validated patient assessment tools,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, Article ID e0121269, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Tsai, L. Shi, W.-L. Yu, L.-M. Hung, and L. A. Lebrun, “Physician specialty and the quality of medical care experiences in the context of the Taiwan National Health Insurance System,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 402–412, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Charan and T. Biswas, “How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research?” Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. L. Kimberlin and A. G. Winterstein, “Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 65, no. 23, pp. 2276–2284, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. C. Nunnally Jr., Introduction to Psychological Measurement, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1970.
  41. R. F. DeVellis, “Guidelines in scale development,” in Scale Development: Theory and Applications, pp. 51–91, Sage, Newbury Park, Calif, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. E. Helms, K. T. Henze, T. L. Sass, and V. A. Mifsud, “Treating cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients as data in counseling research,” The Counseling Psychologist, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 630–660, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Likert, “A technique for the measurement of attitudes,” Archives of Psychology, vol. 22, no. 140, pp. 1–55, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. D. Hays and T. Hayashi, “Beyond internal consistency reliability: rationale and user's guide for Multitrait Analysis Program on the microcomputer,” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. J. Cronbach, Essentials of Psychological Testing, Harper & Row, New York, NY, USA, 1949.
  46. The State Council of People's Republic of China, “The State Council's guideline on establishment of a GP system,” Chinese Journal of General Practices, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 609–612, 2011 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  47. L. J. Jie, The Coordination between Community Health Centers and Hospitals in Guangzhou, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, 2014.
  48. J.-Q. Zhang, L. Kuang, and Y.-Z. Ma, “Rererral mechanism of rural health service and the influencing factors: an empirical research,” Chinese Rural Health Service Administration, vol. 32, no. 6, p. 556, 2012 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  49. X.-Y. Zhu, H.-H. Xia, L. Kuang, and L.-T. Yin, “Current status, problems and improvement strategy of referral service system for community general practitioners,” Chinese General Practice, vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 1888–1892, 2015 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar
  50. H. H. X. Wang, S. Y. S. Wong, M. C. S. Wong et al., “Patients' experiences in different models of community health centers in southern China,” Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 517–526, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus