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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6294098, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6294098
Research Article

Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2Mycology & Plant Disease Survey Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza 12511, Egypt
3Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Food & Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4Seed Pathology Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza 12511, Egypt
5Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190001, India

Received 11 May 2016; Accepted 27 June 2016

Academic Editor: Diby Paul

Copyright © 2016 Abeer Hashem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR).