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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6421039, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6421039
Research Article

Reducing the Cost of the Diagnostic Odyssey in Early Onset Epileptic Encephalopathies

1Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Iowa Children’s Hospital, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2Iowa Institute of Human Genetics, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

Received 29 January 2016; Revised 26 March 2016; Accepted 7 April 2016

Academic Editor: Martine Tetreault

Copyright © 2016 Charuta Joshi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has revolutionized the way we think about and diagnose epileptic encephalopathies. Multiple recent review articles discuss the benefits of WES and suggest various algorithms to follow for determining the etiology of epileptic encephalopathies. Incorporation of WES in these algorithms is leading to the discovery of new genetic diagnoses of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) at a rapid rate; however, WES is not yet a universally utilized diagnostic tool. Clinical WES may be underutilized due to provider discomfort in ordering the test or perceived costliness. At our hospital WES is not routinely performed for patients with EOEE due to limited insurance reimbursement. In fact for any patient with noncommercial insurance (Medicaid) the institution does not allow sending out WES as this is not “established”/“proven to be highly useful and cost effective”/“approved test” in patients with epilepsy. Recently, we performed WES on four patients from three families and identified novel mutations in known epilepsy genes in all four cases. These patients had State Medicaid as their insurance carrier and were followed up for several years for EOEE while being worked up using the traditional/approved testing methods. Following a recently proposed diagnostic pathway, we analyzed the cost savings (US dollars) that could be accrued if WES was performed earlier in the diagnostic odyssey. This is the first publication that addresses the dollar cost of traditional testing in EOEE as performed in these four cases versus WES and the potential cost savings.