Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6504593, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6504593
Review Article

MicroRNAs: Novel Crossroads between Myeloma Cells and the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

1Laboratory of Tissue Engineering-Innovative Technology Platforms for Tissue Engineering (PON01_01059), Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, 90100 Palermo, Italy
2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University and Medical Oncology Unit, Salvatore Venuta University Campus, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
3Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, 40136 Bologna, Italy
4Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Received 25 September 2015; Accepted 1 December 2015

Academic Editor: Gang Liu

Copyright © 2016 Lavinia Raimondi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow, where a complex microenvironment made by different cell types supports proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed or functionally deregulated in MM cells as the result of multiple genetic or epigenetic mechanisms and that also the tumor microenvironment regulates MM cell functions by miRNAs. Consistently, modulation of miRNA levels in MM cells has been demonstrated to impair their functional interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment and to produce significant antitumor activity even able to overcome the protective bone marrow milieu. This review will describe the most recent findings on miRNA function in the context of MM bone marrow microenvironment, focusing on the therapeutic potential of miRNA-based approaches.