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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6591717, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6591717
Research Article

Platelet-Rich Plasma: The Choice of Activation Method Affects the Release of Bioactive Molecules

1Laboratory RAMSES, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2Nano-Biotechnology Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
3Laboratory of Immunorheumatology and Tissue Regeneration, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
4Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University of Bologna, Via Giuseppe Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
5Clinical Pathology Unit, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
6I Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna, Italy
7Biomechanics Laboratory, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy

Received 22 February 2016; Accepted 8 August 2016

Academic Editor: Sheldon Lin

Copyright © 2016 Carola Cavallo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is a low-cost procedure to deliver high concentrations of autologous growth factors (GFs). Platelet activation is a crucial step that might influence the availability of bioactive molecules and therefore tissue healing. Activation of PRP from ten voluntary healthy males was performed by adding 10% of CaCl2, 10% of autologous thrombin, 10% of a mixture of CaCl2 + thrombin, and 10% of collagen type I. Blood derivatives were incubated for 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, and 24 hours and samples were evaluated for the release of VEGF, TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, IL-1β, and TNF-α. PRP activated with CaCl2, thrombin, and CaCl2/thrombin formed clots detected from the 15-minute evaluation, whereas in collagen-type-I-activated samples no clot formation was noticed. Collagen type I produced an overall lower GF release. Thrombin, CaCl2/thrombin, and collagen type I activated PRPs showed an immediate release of PDGF and TGF- that remained stable over time, whereas VEGF showed an increasing trend from 15 minutes up to 24 hours. CaCl2 induced a progressive release of GFs from 15 minutes and increasing up to 24 hours. The method chosen to activate PRP influences both its physical form and the releasate in terms of GF amount and release kinetic.