Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7289310, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7289310
Research Article

Inhalation Conscious Sedation with Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen as Alternative to General Anesthesia in Precooperative, Fearful, and Disabled Pediatric Dental Patients: A Large Survey on 688 Working Sessions

1Division of Dentistry and Orthodontics, Bambino Gesù Hospital, Viale San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Oral Sciences, Section of Paediatric Dentistry, University of Naples, Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy

Received 6 August 2016; Accepted 6 September 2016

Academic Editor: Tatsushi Mutoh

Copyright © 2016 Angela Galeotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. D'Alessandro, N. Alkhamis, K. Mattarozzi, M. Mazzetti, and G. Piana, “Fear of dental pain in Italian children: child personality traits and parental dental fear,” Journal of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 179–183, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Navit, N. Johri, S. A. Khan et al., “Effectiveness and comparison of various audio distraction aids in management of anxious dental paediatric patients,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. ZC05–ZC09, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Alaki, A. Alotaibi, E. Almabadi, and E. Alanquri, “Dental anxiety in middle school children and their caregivers: prevalence and severity,” Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene, vol. 4, pp. 6–11, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. G. Klingberg, U. Berggren, and J. G. Norén, “Dental fear in an urban Swedish child population: prevalence and concomitant factors,” Community Dental Health, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 208–214, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. M. Popescu, I. T. Dascalu, M. Scrieciu, V. Mercut, I. Moraru, and M. J. Tuculina, “Dental anxiety and its association with behavioral factors in children,” Current Health Sciences Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 261–264, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Julihn, M. Barr Agholme, M. Grindefjord, and T. Modéer, “Risk factors and risk indicators associated with high caries experience in Swedish 19-year-olds,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 267–273, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Matharu and P. F. Ashley, “Sedation of anxious children undergoing dental treatment,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 25, no. 1, Article ID CD003877, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. K. Murthy, M. Pramila, and S. Ranganath, “Prevalence of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries and its relation to dental fear among 12–15-year-old schoolchildren in Bangalore city, India,” European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 45–49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Silegy and S. T. Jacks, “Pediatric oral conscious sedation,” Journal of the California Dental Association, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 413–418, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Moore and M. Houpt, “Sedative drug therapy in pediatric dentistry,” in Management of Pain and Anxiety in Dental Practice, R. A. Dionne and J. C. Phero, Eds., pp. 239–266, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  11. A. R. Milnes, “Intravenous procedural sedation: an alternative to general anesthesia in the treatment of early childhood caries,” Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 298–302, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Soldani, S. Manton, D. R. Stirrups, C. Cumming, and J. Foley, “A comparison of inhalation sedation agents in the management of children receiving dental treatment: a randomized, controlled, cross-over pilot trial,” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 65–75, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. L. Hallonsten, G. Koch, and U. Schröder, “Nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation in dental care,” Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 347–355, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. J. Shaw, J. G. Meechan, N. M. Kilpatrick, and R. R. Welbury, “The use of inhalation sedation and local anaesthesia instead of general anaesthesia for extractions and minor oral surgery in children: a prospective study,” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. A. E. Bryan, “The success of inhalation sedation for comprehensive dental care within the Community Dental Service,” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 410–414, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Lyratzopoulos and K. M. Blain, “Inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide as an alternative to dental general anaesthesia for children,” Journal of Public Health Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 303–312, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. T. Hosey, “UK National Clinical Guidelines in Pediatric Dentistry. Managing anxious children: the use of conscious sedation in paediatric dentistry,” International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 359–372, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  18. P. Onody, P. Gil, and M. Hennequin, “Safety of inhalation of a 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix: a prospective survey of 35 828 administrations,” Drug Safety, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 633–640, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Pasarón, C. Burnweit, J. Zerpa et al., “Nitrous oxide procedural sedation in non-fasting pediatric patients undergoing minor surgery: a 12-year experience with 1,058 patients,” Pediatric Surgery International, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, “Guideline on use of nitrous oxide for pediatric dental patients,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. E174–E178, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. I. Holroyd, “Conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry. A short review of the current UK guidelines and the technique of inhalational sedation with nitrous oxide,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Faulks, M. Hennequin, S. Albecker-Grappe et al., “Sedation with 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen for outpatient dental treatment in individuals with intellectual disability,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 621–625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Hennequin, V. Collado, D. Faulks, S. Koscielny, P. Onody, and E. Nicolas, “A clinical trial of efficacy and safety of inhalation sedation with a 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix (Kalinox) in general practice,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 633–642, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Aldrete and D. Kroulik, “A postanesthetic recovery score,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 924–934, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Venham and S. Quatrocelli, “The young child's response to repeated dental procedures,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 734–738, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Foley, “A prospective study of the use of nitrous oxide inhalation sedation for dental treatment in anxious children,” European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 121–128, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. A. Averley, I. Lane, J. Sykes, N. M. Girdler, N. Steen, and S. Bond, “An RCT pilot study to test the effects of intravenous midazolam as a conscious sedation technique for anxious children requiring dental treatment—an alternative to general anaesthesia,” British Dental Journal, vol. 197, no. 9, pp. 553–558, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Bonafé-Monzó, J. Rojo-Moreno, and M. Catalá-Pizarro, “Analgesic and physiological effects in conscious sedation with different nitrous oxide concentrations,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. e63–e68, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar