Table 3: Genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of CCC, CFCC, and CAF in the Drosophila wing spot test.

CompoundClones per wings (number of spots)Frequency of clone formation per 105 cellsRecombination (%)IP (%)
Number of wingsSmall single spots
(1-2 cells)
= 2
Large simple spots
(>2 cells)
= 5
Twin spots
= 5
Total spots
= 2
ObservedControl corrected

H2O
mwh/flr3800.25 (20)0.013 (1)00.263 (21)1.078
mwh/TM3800.04 (3)00.04 (3)0.17
H2O2 (0.15 M)
mwh/flr3800.313 (25)0.088 (7)0.038 (3)0.438 (35)+1.7950.71754.37
mwh/TM3800.188 (15)0.013 (1)0.20 (16)0.8190.286

Simple treatment (mwh/flr3)
CCC (mg/mL)
3.125800.275 (22)0.025 (2)00.3 (24)−1.230.152
100780.19 (15)0.038 (3)0.026 (2)0.256 (20)−1.05−0.028
CFCC (mg/mL)
3.125800.175 (14)0.075 (6)00.25 (20)−1.025−0.053
100800.225 (18)0.075 (6)00.3 (24)−1.230.152
Caffeine (mM)
0.016800.26 (21)0.03 (3)00.3 (24)−1.230.152
0.51860.21 (18)0.058 (5)0.012 (1)0.28 (24)−1.1480.07

Combined treatment (mwh/flr3)
CCC (mg/mL)
3.125820.11 (9)0.037 (3)00.146 (12)0.6−0.47874.6166.67
100830.217 (18)0.048 (4)00.265 (22)1.0860.00869.898.88
CFCC (mg/mL)
3.125820.195 (16)0.073 (6)00.268 (22)1.10.02255.596.93
100800.175 (14)0.05 (4)00.225 (18)0.922−0.15664.4121.76
Caffeine (mM)
0.016800.16 (13)0.025 (2)00.188 (15)0.77−0.30889.6142.96
0.51800.325 (26)0.125 (10)00.45 (36)Δ1.8440.766

Combined treatment (mwh/TM3)
CCC (mg/mL)
3.125790.038 (3)00.038 (3)0.158−0.35
100800.08 (6)00.08 (6)0.328−0.21
CFCC (mg/mL)
3.125820.12 (10)00.12 (10)β0.490.32
100800.08 (6)00.08 (6)0.3280.158
Caffeine (mM)
0.016820.02 (2)00.02 (2)0.08−0.09
0.51

Statistical diagnosis according to Frei and Würgler [44]: + (positive) and − (negative) versus negative control; (positive), Δ (negative), and β (inconclusive) versus respective positive control; : multiplication factor. Kastenbaum-Bowman Test without Bonferroni correction; probability levels: α = β = 0.05. Number of spots in parentheses.
Frequency of clone formation: clones/wings/24,400 cells.
Recombination percentage is calculated according to Valadares et al. [38].
Inhibition percentage values were included when appropriate.
Balancers-heterozygous wings.