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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7627358, 11 pages
Research Article

Agreement among Four Prevalence Metrics for Urogenital Schistosomiasis in the Eastern Region of Ghana

1Department of Community Health, Tufts University School of Arts and Sciences, 574 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, USA
2Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Diseases, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, Medford, MA 02155, USA
4Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
5Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG581, Legon, Ghana
6Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Received 2 August 2016; Revised 27 September 2016; Accepted 8 November 2016

Academic Editor: Charles Spencer

Copyright © 2016 Karen Claire Kosinski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Few studies assess agreement among Schistosoma haematobium eggs, measured hematuria, and self-reported metrics. We assessed agreement among four metrics at a single time point and analyzed the stability of infection across two time points with a single metric. We used data from the Eastern Region of Ghana and constructed logistic regression models. Girls reporting macrohematuria were 4.1 times more likely to have measured hematuria than girls not reporting macrohematuria (CI95%: 2.1–7.9); girls who swim were 3.6 times more likely to have measured hematuria than nonswimmers (CI95%: 1.6–7.9). For boys, neither self-reported metric was predictive. Girls with measured hematuria in 2010 were 3.3 times more likely to be positive in 2012 (CI95%: 1.01–10.5), but boys showed no association. Boys with measured hematuria in 2008 were 6.0 times more likely to have measured hematuria in 2009 (CI95%: 1.5–23.9) and those with eggs in urine in 2008 were 4.8 times more likely to have eggs in urine in 2009 (CI95%: 1.2–18.8). For girls, measured hematuria in 2008 predicted a positive test in 2009 (OR = 2.8; CI95%: 1.1–6.8), but egg status did not. Agreement between dipstick results and eggs suggests continued dipstick used is appropriate. Self-reported swimming should be further examined. For effective disease monitoring, we recommend annual dipstick testing.