Table 1: The relationship between heavy metal exposure and gastric cancer.

Heavy metalMain findingsReference

AsGastric cancer increased by 8.2% in villages with As-contaminated drinking water.[12]
AsThe rates of GI cancers increased in an area in Turkey with high As contamination, compared with the average rate in Turkey.[13]
Pb, As, SbStatistical analysis revealed a high correlation between gastric cancer and areas with mineral deposits of Pb, As, Sb.[11]
CrMeta-analysis indicated that Cr6+ exposure increases the risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.69).[3]
CrCr topsoil concentrations correlated with mortality of upper GI tract and breast cancer among women.[7]
PbInorganic lead exposure is associated with gastric cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% Cl = 1.2–7.3; and OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1–3.8, resp.).[15]
AsSoil arsenic was significantly positively correlated with gastric cancer (); an increase of 1 ppm arsenic concentration in soil was associated with an 11.1% increase in the gastric cancer mortality rate. [13]
AsAs exposure was significantly associated with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates. [6]
Cd, PbCd and Pb exposure increased the risk of mortality from all cancers, including stomach, esophageal, and lung cancers. [7]
PbA significantly statistical association was observed between Pb topsoil levels and primary gastric cancer.[17]
CdGastric cancer patients had higher urine Cd concentrations in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.35–2.20).[10]
HgThe level of Hg in hair positively correlated with the transition of gastritis to superficial gastritis and atrophic gastritis or even cancer. [14]

As, arsenic; Cd, cadmium; Cr, chromium; Hg, mercury; Pb, lead; Sm, antimony; CI, confidence interval; GI, gastrointestinal; RR, relative risk; OR, odds ratio.