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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7857345, 8 pages
Research Article

A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

1Istanbul Esenyurt University, 34510 Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Pharmacovigilance, Materiovigilance and Rational Use of Drugs, Tekirdag State Hospital, Ministry of Health, 59100 Tekirdag, Turkey
3Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Turgut Ozal Street No. 1, Halkali, Kucukcekmece, 34303 Istanbul, Turkey
4Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Istanbul University, 34098 Istanbul, Turkey
5Nisantasi University, 34360 Istanbul, Turkey
6Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Acıbadem University, 34360 Istanbul, Turkey

Received 14 March 2016; Revised 3 May 2016; Accepted 16 May 2016

Academic Editor: Patrizia Rovere-Querini

Copyright © 2016 Nevzat Selim Gokay et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant () positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.