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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7985167, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7985167
Review Article

Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

1Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Strategic Livestock Research Centre, Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5Rice Research Center, Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 3 February 2016; Revised 16 May 2016; Accepted 18 May 2016

Academic Editor: Encarnación Ruiz

Copyright © 2016 Yusuff Oladosu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.