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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8182096, 9 pages
Research Article

Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli within the Food Distribution System of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

1Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, 159 Hung Phu Street, Ward 8, District 8, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
2Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, 1-3-69 Nakamichi, Higashinariku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan
3Global Collaboration Center, Osaka University, 2-7 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Received 3 November 2015; Accepted 17 January 2016

Academic Editor: Stanley Brul

Copyright © 2016 Do Phuc Nguyen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To investigate the dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli within the food distribution system of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli strains in chicken meat, pork, beef, and fish/shrimp samples obtained from slaughterhouses, a wholesale market, and supermarkets was examined. Among the total of 330 collected food samples, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli was detected in 150 samples (45.5%). The highest prevalence of these isolates was in chicken meat (76/82, 92.7%), followed by pork (32/92, 34.8%), beef (18/74, 34.3%), and fish/shrimp (24/82, 29.3%). A total of 342 strains of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were isolated from 150 positive food samples. The most prevalent genes responsible for ESBL or pAmpC activity belonged to the CTX-M-9 (110/342, 31.2%), CTX-M-1 (102/342, 29.8%), and CIT (118/342, 34.5%) groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the high occurrence of pAmpC (37.1%) in animal-based food in Vietnam. Among the 342 total ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli isolates, 276 (80.7%) were resistant to at least 6 antibiotic agents. Notably, high percentages of resistance to ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were found in isolates from chicken (80.5% and 50.8%, resp.). These findings demonstrate that animal-based food products in HCMC represent a major reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli.