Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8549635, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8549635
Research Article

The Synthesis and Evaluations of the 68Ga-Lissamine Rhodamine B (LRB) as a New Radiotracer for Imaging Tumors by Positron Emission Tomography

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China

Received 25 November 2015; Accepted 13 January 2016

Academic Editor: James Russell

Copyright © 2016 Xuena Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Perera, S. Stoykova, B. N. Nicolay et al., “Transcriptional control of autophagy-lysosome function drives pancreatic cancer metabolism,” Nature, vol. 524, no. 7565, pp. 361–365, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S.-M. Jeon, N. S. Chandel, and N. Hay, “AMPK regulates NADPH homeostasis to promote tumour cell survival during energy stress,” Nature, vol. 485, no. 7400, pp. 661–665, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. O. Warburg, “On the origin of cancer cells,” Science, vol. 123, no. 3191, pp. 309–314, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. G. V. Heiden, L. C. Cantley, and C. B. Thompson, “Understanding the warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5930, pp. 1029–1033, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Pavlides, D. Whitaker-Menezes, R. Castello-Cros et al., “The reverse Warburg effect: aerobic glycolysis in cancer associated fibroblasts and the tumor stroma,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 3984–4001, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Bonuccelli, D. Whitaker-Menezes, R. Castello-Cros et al., “The reverse Warburg effect: glycolysis inhibitors prevent the tumor promoting effects of caveolin-1 deficient cancer associated fibroblasts,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1960–1971, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Pavlides, A. Tsirigos, I. Vera et al., “Loss of stromal caveolin-1 leads to oxidative stress, mimics hypoxia and drives inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, conferring the ‘reverse Warburg effect’: a transcriptional informatics analysis with validation,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2201–2219, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Sotgia, D. Whitaker-Menezes, U. E. Martinez-Outschoorn et al., “Mitochondria ‘fuel’ breast cancer metabolism: fifteen markers of mitochondrial biogenesis label epithelial cancer cells, but are excluded from adjacent stromal cells,” Cell Cycle, vol. 11, no. 23, pp. 4390–4401, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. S. Modica-Napolitano and K. K. Singh, “Mitochondria as targets for detection and treatment of cancer,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1–19, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. R. Duchen, “Mitochondria in health and disease: perspectives on a new mitochondrial biology,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 365–451, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S.-G. Huang, “Development of a high throughput screening assay for mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells,” Journal of Biomolecular Screening, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 383–389, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Gottlieb and C. B. Thompson, “Targeting the mitochondria to enhance tumor suppression,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 223, pp. 543–554, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. F. Ross, G. F. Kelso, F. H. Blaikie et al., “Lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cations as tools in mitochondrial bioenergetics and free radical biology,” Biochemistry, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 222–230, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. T. Yang, Y. S. Kim, J. Wang et al., “64Cu-labeled 2-(diphenylphosphoryl) ethyldiphenylphosphonium cations as highly selective tumor imagingagents: effects of linkers and chelates on radiotracer biodistribution characteristics,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2008–2022, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J. J. Min, S. Biswal, C. Deroose, and S. S. Gambhir, “Tetraphenylphosphonium as a novel molecular probe for imaging tumors,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 636–643, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Kim, X. Yan, O. Jacobson, X. Chen, and S. Liu, “64Cu-labeled Lissamine rhodamine B: a promising PET radiotracer targeting tumor mitochondria,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1198–1208, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Pan, Y. P. Xu, R. H. Yang et al., “A new 68Ga-labeled BBN peptide with a hydrophilic linker for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging,” Amino Acids, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1481–1489, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. S. Modica-Napolitano and J. R. Aprille, “Delocalized lipophilic cations selectively target the mitochondria of carcinoma cells,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 49, no. 1-2, pp. 63–70, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 60, pp. 619–642, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. H. Dairkee and A. J. Hackett, “Differential retention of rhodamine 123 by breast carcinoma and normal human mammary tissue,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. P. Zhernosekov, D. V. Filosofov, R. P. Baum et al., “Processing of generator-produced 68Ga for medical application,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1741–1748, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. A. P. Breeman, E. de Blois, H. Sze Chan, M. Konijnenberg, D. J. Kwekkeboom, and E. P. Krenning, “68Ga-labeled DOTA-peptides and 68Ga-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography: current status of research, clinical applications, and future perspectives,” Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 314–321, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. Virgolini, V. Ambrosini, J. B. Bomanji et al., “Procedure guidelines for PET/CT tumour imaging with 68Ga-DOTA- conjugated peptides: 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-NOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 2004–2010, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Kim, J. Shi, O. Jacobson, X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Evaluation of 64Cu-labeled acridinium cation: a PET radiotracer targeting tumor mitochondria,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 700–708, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y.-J. Chen, C.-D. Kuo, S.-H. Chen et al., “Small-molecule synthetic compound norcantharidin reverses multi-drug resistance by regulating Sonic hedgehog signaling in human breast cancer cells,” PloS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e37006, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Piwnica-Worms and V. Sharma, “Probing multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transporter activity with SPECT radiopharmaceuticals,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 1834–1845, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Trencsényi, I. Kertész, Z. T. Krasznai et al., “2′[(18)F]-fluoroethylrhodamine B is a promising radiotracer to measure P-glycoprotein function,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 27–35, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  28. K. McLarty, M. D. Moran, D. A. Scollard et al., “Comparisons of [18F]-1-deoxy-1-fluoro-scyllo-inositol with [18F]-FDG for PET imaging of inflammation, breast and brain cancer xenografts in athymic mice,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 953–959, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. W. Makinen, R. Bamba, L. Ikejimba, C. Wietholt, C.-T. Chen, and S. D. Conzen, “The vanadyl chelate bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(iv) increases the fractional uptake of 2-(fluorine-18)-2-deoxy-d-glucose by cultured human breast carcinoma cells,” Dalton Transactions, vol. 42, no. 33, pp. 11862–11867, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus