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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8567479, 10 pages
Research Article

Prediction of Early Recurrence of Liver Cancer by a Novel Discrete Bayes Decision Rule for Personalized Medicine

1Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan
2Department of Kampo Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
3Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan

Received 23 May 2016; Revised 10 August 2016; Accepted 8 September 2016

Academic Editor: Alexander Kaplun

Copyright © 2016 Hiroyuki Ogihara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We discuss a novel diagnostic method for predicting the early recurrence of liver cancer with high accuracy for personalized medicine. The difficulty with cancer treatment is that even if the types of cancer are the same, the cancers vary depending on the patient. Thus, remarkable attention has been paid to personalized medicine. Unfortunately, although the Tokyo Score, the Modified JIS, and the TNM classification have been proposed as liver scoring systems, none of these scoring systems have met the needs of clinical practice. In this paper, we convert continuous and discrete data to categorical data and keep the natively categorical data as is. Then, we propose a discrete Bayes decision rule that can deal with the categorical data. This may lead to its use with various types of laboratory data. Experimental results show that the proposed method produced a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.49 for the test samples. This suggests that our method may be superior to the well-known Tokyo Score, the Modified JIS, and the TNM classification in terms of sensitivity. Additional comparative study shows that if the numbers of test samples in two classes are the same, this method works well in terms of the measure compared to the existing scoring methods.