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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8594087, 7 pages
Research Article

The Effect of File Size and Type and Irrigation Solutions on the Accuracy of Electronic Apex Locators: An In Vitro Study on Canine Teeth

1Department of Biostructure and Animal Physiology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kożuchowska 1, 51-631 Wroclaw, Poland
2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Pedodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Krakowska 26, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland
3Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Wroclaw, Łukasiewicza 5, 50-371 Wroclaw, Poland
4Dental Clinic Adentis, Surowieckiego 8, 02-785 Warszawa, Poland
5Dental Practice, Bartąska 2/22, 10-699 Olsztyn, Poland
6Private Dental Clinic Maciej Kozłowski, Spokojna 23, 56-400 Oleśnica, Poland

Received 4 April 2016; Revised 1 August 2016; Accepted 25 August 2016

Academic Editor: Andrea Scribante

Copyright © 2016 Maciej Janeczek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Measurements of the root canal during endodontic treatment have a significant influence on the course of the therapeutic process as well as on its final result in both human and veterinary medicine. The apical constriction should be the termination point for the preparation and filling of the root canal. This research was conducted with the use of a Septodont kit consisting of a small chamber filled with the examined solution in which a healthy second incisor was placed. The step back method was applied for the root canal preparation and master apical file of 30 was used. The working length was 22 mm. The examination was conducted with the use of steel as well as nickel titanium hand instruments. Different irrigation solutions and two types of apex locators were used. Measurements of the working length of the root canal showed dependence on the size of the instrument. Examinations carried out in various environments showed that analogical measurements were obtained only for sodium hypochlorite solutions. In other environments the measured sections were shortened. Comparative examinations with the use of steel instruments demonstrated insignificant measurement differences. Compared to these results, the measurements in nickel titanium group were characterized by more considerable deviations.