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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9032085, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9032085
Review Article

Anaplasma marginale: Diversity, Virulence, and Vaccine Landscape through a Genomics Approach

Unidad de Anaplasmosis, Centro Nacional en Investigación Disciplinaria en Parasitología Veterinaria, INIFAP, Carretera Federal Cuernavaca-Cuautla 8534, 62574 Jiutepec, MOR, Mexico

Received 4 May 2016; Accepted 26 July 2016

Academic Editor: Jozef Anné

Copyright © 2016 Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In order to understand the genetic diversity of A. marginale, several efforts have been made around the world. This rickettsia affects a significant number of ruminants, causing bovine anaplasmosis, so the interest in its virulence and how it is transmitted have drawn interest not only from a molecular point of view but also, recently, some genomics research have been performed to elucidate genes and proteins with potential as antigens. Unfortunately, so far, we still do not have a recombinant anaplasmosis vaccine. In this review, we present a landscape of the multiple approaches carried out from the genomic perspective to generate valuable information that could be used in a holistic way to finally develop an anaplasmosis vaccine. These approaches include the analysis of the genetic diversity of A. marginale and how this affects control measures for the disease. Anaplasmosis vaccine development is also reviewed from the conventional vaccinomics to genome-base vaccinology approach based on proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics analyses reported. The use of these new omics approaches will undoubtedly reveal new targets of interest in the near future, comprising information of potential antigens and the immunogenic effect of A. marginale proteins.