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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9315757, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9315757
Review Article

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

1Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases: Global Health, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
3Department of Epidemiology, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA

Received 23 October 2015; Accepted 9 February 2016

Academic Editor: Ma Luo

Copyright © 2016 Kristina Adachi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.