Table 1: Characteristics of trials included in systematic review.

StudyNumber of patients (spinal anesthesia/general anesthesia)Study designIntra-abdominal CO2 pressurePatient characteristicsPrimary end pointJadad score

Tiwari et al., 2013 [10]110/114RCT8–10 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), nausea/vomiting, urinary retention, hypotension, headache, back pain, sore throat5
Bessa et al., 2012 [1]86/90RCT10 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), PONV, urine retention, postoperative spinal headache, wound sepsis4
Tzovaras et al., 2008 [11]49/48RCT ≤10 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), PONV, urinary retention, dizziness5
Kalaivani et al., 2014 [12]23/25RCT12 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), PONV, urinary retention, postoperative spinal headache, wound sepsis3
Bessa et al., 2010 [4]30/30RCT ≤15 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), PONV, urine retention, postoperative spinal headache, wound sepsis4
Ellakany, 2013 [13]20/20RCT ≤10 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), patient satisfaction, surgeon satisfaction4
Imbelloni et al., 2010 [14]34/33RCT ≤8 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), PONV, urine retention, shoulder pain, pruritus, duration of the sensorial blockade, duration of the motor blockade5
Ross et al. 2013 [21]10/10RCT12–15 mmHgAdult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomyPain score (VAS), shoulder pain, nausea, urinary retention, severe abdominal pain, dizziness5

PONV: postoperative nausea and vomiting.