BioMed Research International / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Clinically Meaningful Use of Blood Tumor Markers in Oncology

Table 1

Commonly used TMs and associated malignancies.

TMType of malignancyDifferential diagnosisPrognosis/stagingTreatment monitoring/surveillance

TgThyroidxx
CalcitoninThyroid (medullary)xx
β2M (beta-2-microglobulin)Multiple myeloma, CLLx
CEACRC, pancreatic, gastric/gastroesophageal AC, esophageal AC, NSCLC AC, breast, endometrial, thyroid, c-cellx
CA 125Ovarian, breast, omental carcinomatosisxx
HE4Ovarian, NSCLC, endometrialxx
Beta-HCGGCT, choriocarcinoma, urothelialxxx
AFP (alpha-feto protein)HCC, GCTxxx
CA 15-3Breast, NSCLC ACxx
CA 19-9Pancreatic, biliary tract, upper GIxx
CA 72-4Upper GI, mucinous ovarianx
CYFRA 21-1NSCLC, esophageal, HNSCC, pancreatic, bladderxx
S100Malignant melanomax
NSESCLC, NET, neuroblastomaxx
ProGRPSCLC, thyroid medullaryxxx
Chromogranin ASCLC, NETxx
PSA/free PSAProstatexxx
SCCACervix SCC, NSCLC SCC, esophageal SCC, HNSCCx
Ig (immunoglobulin)Multiple myelomax
LC (light chains)Multiple myelomaxx
Her-2-neuBreast cancerx
TKMultiple myeloma, CLLxxx

AC, adenocarcinoma; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; GCT, germ-cell tumor; GI, gastrointestinal; NET, neuroendocrine tumors; TK, thymidine kinase; Tg, thyroglobulin.