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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1295087, 10 pages
Research Article

Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

1Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología-Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico
2Facultad de Química, Departamento de Biología, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo; moc.liamg@oyorraohcamac

Received 8 August 2016; Revised 24 November 2016; Accepted 15 December 2016; Published 12 January 2017

Academic Editor: Jens Schittenhelm

Copyright © 2017 Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is a progesterone (P4) regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM) from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM) blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL) increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h) and U251 (24 and 48 h) cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.