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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1460243, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1460243
Research Article

A Comparative Study of Oral Microbiota in Infants with Complete Cleft Lip and Palate or Cleft Soft Palate

1Department of Orthodontics, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Traugutta Square 2, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze, Poland
3Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Akademicki Square 17, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
4Department of Dental Surgery, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Akademicki Square 17, 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek; lp.teno@hcamaga

Received 5 December 2016; Revised 12 February 2017; Accepted 7 March 2017; Published 14 March 2017

Academic Editor: Koichiro Wada

Copyright © 2017 Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Few reports have been published on the early microbiota in infants with various types of cleft palate. We assessed the formation of the oral microbiota in infants with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP ) or cleft soft palate (CSP ) in the neonatal period (T1 time) and again in the gum pad stage (T2 time). Culture swabs from the tongue, palate, and/or cleft margin at T1 and T2 were taken. We analysed the prevalence of the given bacterial species (the percentage) and the proportions in which the palate and tongue were colonised by each microorganism. At T1, Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) were the most frequently detected in subjects with CLP or CSP (63% and 60%, resp.). A significantly higher frequency of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus MSSA) was observed in CLP compared to the CSP group. At T2, significantly higher percentages of S. mitis, S. aureus MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were noted in CLP infants compared to the CSP. S. mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis appeared with the greatest frequency on the tongue, whereas Streptococcus salivarius was predominant on the palate. The development of the microbiota in CLP subjects was characterised by a significant increase in the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria.