Table 2: Major randomized clinical trials on HF device therapy and elderly population.

TrialPatients numberMean age (years)Patients age ≥ 65Patients age > 70Primary endpoint RRR (%)Age interaction

ICDMUSTT [22]7046755% all-cause mortality
74% arrhythmic mortality
MADIT II [21]12326435%31% all-cause mortalityNo
(<60 versus 60–69 versus ≥70)
DEFINITE [20]4585834%35% all-cause mortality
80% arrhythmic mortality
No
(<65 versus ≥65)
DINAMIT [19]67461NS all-cause mortality
68% arrhythmic mortality
No
(<60 versus ≥60)
SCD-HeFT [19]25216023%35% all-cause mortalityNo
(<65 versus ≥65)
DANISH [36]5566413% all-cause mortality
(not significant)
Yes
(≤59 versus 60–67 versus ≥68)

CRTCOMPANION [23]15206756%(i) 20% all-cause mortality or HF hospitalizationNo
(<65 versus ≥65)
CARE-HF [23]81366(i) 37% all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization
(ii) 36% all-cause mortality
No
(<66.4 versus ≥66.4)
RAFT [26]17986657%(i) 25% all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization
(ii) 25% all-cause mortality
No
(<65 versus ≥65)
MADIT-CRT [23]
LBBB subgroup
18176453%(i) 53% all-cause mortality or HF hospitalizationNo
(<65 versus ≥65)

CRT: cardiac resynchronization therapy; HF: heart failure; ICD: implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; NS, nonsignificant; RRR: relative risk reduction.