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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1514029, 6 pages
Review Article

From Clinical Symptoms to MR Imaging: Diagnostic Steps in Adenomyosis

1Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Health, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru
2Clinic of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, University Hospital for Gynecology, Pius-Hospital Oldenburg, Medical Campus University of Oldenburg, Germany
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
4Department of Public Health, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
5St. George’s Medical School, Nicosia University, Aretaeio Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus
6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to H. Krentel; gro.apgec@letnerk

Received 2 June 2017; Accepted 9 November 2017; Published 4 December 2017

Academic Editor: Kyousuke Takeuchi

Copyright © 2017 H. Krentel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Adenomyosis or endometriosis genitalis interna is a frequent benign disease of women in fertile age. It causes symptoms like bleeding disorders and dysmenorrhea and seems to have a negative effect on fertility. Adenomyosis can be part of a complex genital and extragenital endometriosis but also can be found as a solitary uterine disease. While peritoneal endometriosis can be easily diagnosed by laparoscopy with subsequent biopsy, the determination of adenomyosis is difficult. In the following literature review, the diagnostic methods clinical history and symptoms, gynecological examination, 2D and 3D transvaginal ultrasound, MRI, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy will be discussed step by step in order to evaluate their predictive value in the diagnosis of adenomyosis.