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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1689341, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1689341
Review Article

Role of Gasotransmitters in Oxidative Stresses, Neuroinflammation, and Neuronal Repair

1Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
2East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, H & N Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
4Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea
5Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, 17 Seoae-ro 1 Gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04619, Republic of Korea
6Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
7Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 32 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Junyang Jung; rk.ca.uhk@gnujj, Na Young Jeong; rk.ca.uad@yjjynj, and Youngbuhm Huh; rk.ca.uhk@huhby

Received 7 November 2016; Revised 12 January 2017; Accepted 7 February 2017; Published 12 March 2017

Academic Editor: Paula I. Moreira

Copyright © 2017 Ulfuara Shefa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To date, three main gasotransmitters, that is, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO), have been discovered to play major bodily physiological roles. These gasotransmitters have multiple functional roles in the body including physiologic and pathologic functions with respect to the cellular or tissue quantities of these gases. Gasotransmitters were originally known to have only detrimental and noxious effects in the body but that notion has much changed with years; vast studies demonstrated that these gasotransmitters are precisely involved in the normal physiological functioning of the body. From neuromodulation, oxidative stress subjugation, and cardiovascular tone regulation to immunomodulation, these gases perform critical roles, which, should they deviate from the norm, can trigger the genesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The purpose of this review is to discuss at great length physical and chemical properties and physiological actions of H2S, NO, and CO as well as shedding light on recently researched molecular targets. We particularly put emphasis on the roles in neuronal inflammation and neurodegeneration and neuronal repair.