Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1746570, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1746570
Review Article

What Each Clinical Anatomist Has to Know about Left Renal Vein Entrapment Syndrome (Nutcracker Syndrome): A Review of the Most Important Findings

1Department of Angiology, Medical University of Łódź, Narutowicza 60, 90-136 Łódź, Poland
2Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Łódź, Narutowicza 60, 90-136 Łódź, Poland
3Department of Radiological and Isotopic Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University of Łódź, ul. Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź, Poland
4Department of Radiology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcińskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Michał Polguj

Received 14 April 2017; Accepted 12 October 2017; Published 11 December 2017

Academic Editor: Hossein Tezval

Copyright © 2017 Krzysztof Orczyk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Chait, K. W. Matasar, C. E. Fabian, and H. Z. Mellins, “Vascular impressions on the ureters,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 729–749, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. de Schepper, “Nutcracker phenomenon of the renal vein and venous pathology of the left kidney,” Journal Belge de Radiologie, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 507–511, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Orczyk, P. Łabȩtowicz, S. Lodziński, L. Stefańczyk, M. Topol, and M. Polguj, “The nutcracker syndrome. Morphology and clinical aspects of the important vascular variations: a systematic study of 112 cases,” International Angiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Gibo and H. Onitsuka, “Retroaortic left renal vein with renal vein hypertension causing hematuria,” Clinical Imaging, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 422–424, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X.-L. Luo, G.-N. Qian, H. Xiao, C.-L. Zhao, and X.-D. Zhou, “Posterior nutcracker syndrome associated with interrupted left inferior vena cava with azygos continuation and retroaortic right renal vein,” Korean Journal of Radiology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 345–349, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. J. Buschi, R. B. Harrison, and A. Norman, “Distended left renal vein: CT/sonographic normal variant,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 339–342, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Bhanji, P. Malcolm, and M. Karim, “Nutcracker syndrome and radiographic evaluation of loin pain and hematuria,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1142–1145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Knipp, P. Knechtges, T. Gest, and T. Wakefield, “Inferior Vena Cava: Embryology and Anomalies,” in Aortic Aneurysms: Pathogenesis and Treatment, GR. Upchurch Jr. and E. Criado, Eds., pp. 289–307, Humana Press, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. R. De Martino, “Normal and variant mesenteric anatomy,” in Mesenteric Vascular Disease. Current Therapy, G. S. Oderich, Ed., pp. 9–24, Springer, NY, USA, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  10. S.-M. Wei, Z.-D. Chen, and M. Zhou, “Intravenous stent placement for treatment of the nutcracker syndrome,” The Journal of Urology, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 1934-1935, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Gulleroglu, B. Gulleroglu, and E. Baskin, “Nutcracker syndrome,” World Journal of Nephrology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 277–281, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. Y. Nishimura, M. Fushiki, M. Yoshida et al., “Left renal vein hypertension in patients with left renal bleeding of unknown origin,” Radiology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 663–667, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. J. Grimm, B. I. Engstrom, R. C. Nelson, and C. Y. Kim, “Incidental detection of nutcracker phenomenon on multidetector ct in an asymptomatic population: prevalence and associated findings,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 415–418, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Takebayashi, T. Ueki, N. Ikeda, and A. Fujikawa, “Diagnosis of the nutcracker syndrome with color doppler sonography: correlation with flow patterns on retrograde left renal venography,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. K. Kurklinsky and T. W. Rooke, “Nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 552–559, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Muraoka, T. Sakai, H. Kimura et al., “Rare causes of hematuria associated with various vascular diseases involving the upper urinary tract,” RadioGraphics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 855–867, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. A. Lopatkin, A. V. Morozov, and L. N. Lopatkina, “Essential renal haemorrhages,” European Urology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Cuéllar i Calàbria, S. Quiroga Gómez, C. Sebastià Cerqueda, R. Boyé de la Presa, A. Miranda, and A. Àlvarez-Castells, “Nutcracker or left renal vein compression phenomenon: multidetector computed tomography findings and clinical significance,” European Radiology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1745–1751, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. Shah, X. Qiu, A. Shah, and D. Cao, “Posterior nutcracker syndrome with left renal vein duplication: an uncommon cause of hematuria,” International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1142–1144, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Polguj, M. Topol, and A. Majos, “An unusual case of left venous renal entrapment syndrome: a new type of nutcracker phenomenon?” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 263–267, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Nakazawa, K. Nakano, M. Nakagawa, H. Kishikawa, and K. Nishimura, “Nutcracker syndrome with left inferior vena cava: a case report,” Hinyokika Kiyo, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 329–333, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Baldi, M. Rabellino, T. Zander, G. González, and M. Maynar, “Endovascular treatment of the nutcracker syndrome: report of two cases,” Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 356–359, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. E. Yildiz, F. S. Cayci, S. Genc, N. Cakar, and S. Fitoz, “Right nutcracker syndrome associated with left-sided inferior vena cava, hemiazygos continuation and persistant left superior vena cava: a rare combination,” Clinical Imaging, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 340–345, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Inal, B. Unal Daphan, and M. Y. Karadeniz Bilgili, “SMA syndrome accompanying with nutcracker syndrome: a case report,” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, vol. 16, no. 10, Article ID e14755, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Kodama, T. Noda, and I. Motoi, “Nutcracker phenomenon: An unusual presentation of acute aortic dissection,” Indian Journal of Urology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 67–69, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. J. O. Yun, D. H. O. Nam, J. K. Y. Ryu, and J. S. U. Kim, “The roles of the liver and pancreas in renal nutcracker syndrome,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1765–1770, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. A. Shokeir, T. A. El-Diasty, and M. A. Ghoneim, “The nutcracker syndrome: new methods of diagnosis and treatment,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Ahmed, R. Sampath, and M. S. Khan, “Current trends in the diagnosis and management of renal nutcracker syndrome: a review,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 410–416, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. J. Valentine and G. G. Wind, “Anatomic exposures in vascular surgery,” p. 577, Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  30. B. Ali-El-Dein, Y. Osman, A. B. Shehab El-Din, T. El-Diasty, O. Mansour, and M. A. Ghoneim, “Anterior and posterior nutcracker syndrome: a report on 11 cases,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 851–853, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. He, Z. Wu, S. Chen et al., “Nutcracker syndrome—how well do we know it?” Urology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Z. Ma, X. Liu, Y. Ning, J. Shao, W. Liu, and X. He, “Nutcracker phenomenon in combination with glomerular nephritis in isolated hematuria patients,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 809–816, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. K. Hwang, M. H. Cho, and C. W. Ko, “Nutcracker syndrome in children with orthostatic proteinuria: diagnosis on the basis of venography,” Korean J Nephrol, vol. 27, pp. 446–451, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. Devarajan, “Mechanisms of orthostatic proteinuria: lessons from a transplant donor,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, p. 36, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. R. L. Shaper, J. E. Jackson, and G. Williams, “The nutcracker syndrome: an uncommon cause of haematuria,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 144–146, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Ghonge and B. Aggarwal, “Left renal vein hypertension as a cause of occult hematuria: multi-detector computed tomography demonstration,” Indian Journal of Urology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 575–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Mallat, W. Hmida, M. Jaidane, N. Mama, and F. Mosbah, “Nutcracker syndrome complicated by left renal vein thrombosis,” Case Reports in Urology, vol. 2013, Article ID 168057, 3 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Waseem, R. Upadhyay, and G. Prosper, “The nutcracker syndrome: an underrecognized cause of hematuria,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 171, no. 8, pp. 1269–1271, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. H. Kim, S. W. Cho, H. D. Kim, J. W. Chung, J. H. Park, and M. C. Han, “Nutcracker syndrome: diagnosis with doppler US,” Radiology, vol. 198, no. 1, pp. 93–97, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Okada, K. Tsuzuki, and S. Ito, “Diagnosis of the nutcracker phenomenon using two-dimensional ultrasonography,” in Clin Nephrol, vol. 49, pp. 35–40, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  41. Y. Takahashi, A. Sano, and M. Matsuo, “An ultrasonographic classification for diverse clinical symptoms of pediatric nutcracker phenomenon,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Ananthan, S. Onida, and A. H. Davies, “Nutcracker syndrome: an update on current diagnostic criteria and management guidelines,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 886–894, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. W. Kim, J. Y. Cho, S. H. Kim et al., “Diagnostic value of computed tomographic findings of nutcracker syndrome: correlation with renal venography and renocaval pressure gradients,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 648–654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. E. Gill, T. Ciszak, H. Braun, and C. M. Hawkins, “Intravascular ultrasound versus digital subtraction angiography: direct comparison of intraluminal diameter measurements in pediatric and adolescent imaging,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 450–457, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Mathews, P. A. Smith, E. K. Fishman, and F. F. Marshall, “Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins: embryologic and surgical considerations,” Urology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 873–880, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. I. Shin and J. S. Lee, “Nutcracker [7],” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9478, pp. 2177-2178, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Tanaka and S. Waga, “Spontaneous remission of persistent severe hematuria in an adolescent with nutcracker syndrome: Seven years' observation,” Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 68–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S.-Z. Wang, W.-X. Zhang, Q.-J. Meng, X.-P. Zhang, J.-X. Wei, and B.-P. Qiao, “Laparoscopic Extravascular Stent Placement for Nutcracker Syndrome: A Report of 13 Cases,” Journal of Endourology, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1025–1029, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. O. Hartung, A. Azghari, P. Barthelemy, M. Boufi, and Y. S. Alimi, “Laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein into the inferior vena cava for nutcracker syndrome,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 738–741, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Venkatachalam, K. Bumpus, S. R. Kapadia, B. Gray, S. Lyden, and M. H. Shishehbor, “The nutcracker syndrome,” Annals of Vascular Surgery, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1154–1164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. M. Said, P. Gloviczki, and M. Kalra, “Renal nutcracker syndrome: surgical options,” Seminars in Vascular Surgery, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. Russo, R. Minutolo, V. Iaccarino, M. Andreucci, A. Capuano, and F. A. Savino, “Gross hematuria of uncommon origin: the nutcracker syndrome,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 32, no. 3, article E3, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. Oteki, S. Nagase, A. Hirayama et al., “Nutcracker syndrome associated with severe anemia and mild proteinuria,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 62–65, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus