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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1879437, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1879437
Review Article

The Effect of Osteopontin on Microglia

Department of Ophthalmology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yisheng Zhong

Received 17 February 2017; Revised 29 April 2017; Accepted 24 May 2017; Published 18 June 2017

Academic Editor: Tarja Malm

Copyright © 2017 Huan Yu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine that can be secreted from many cells, including activated macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and is widely distributed in many tissues and cells. OPN, a key factor in tissue repairing and extracellular matrix remodeling after injury, is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, the role of OPN in neurodegenerative diseases has gradually caused widespread concern. Microglia are resident macrophage-like immune cells in CNS and play a vital role in both physiological and pathological conditions, including restoring the integrity of the CNS and promoting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia’s major function is to maintain homeostasis and the normal function of the CNS, both during development and in response to CNS injury. Although the functional mechanism of OPN in CNS neurodegenerative diseases has yet to be fully elucidated, most studies suggest that OPN play a role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases or in neuroprotection by regulating the activation and function of microglia. Here, we summarize the functions of OPN on microglia in response to various stimulations in vitro and in vivo.