Table 4: Differences in the frequency, intensity, and composite moral distress score by sociodemographic and work-related characteristics.

VariableCategoriesMoral distress, frequency
Mean (SD)
Moral distress, intensity
Mean (SD)
Moral distress, composite score
Mean (SD)

GenderFemale40.1 (21.2)68.097.8 (62.9)
Male36.0 (19.1)72.396.3 (63.4)
value0.150.350.90

Age<3042.2 (21.2)70.2 (30.5)107.7 (68.0)
30–3440.2 (18.6)70.5 (28.8)102.1 (54.2)
35–3939.5 (17.9)75.6 (32.8)106.2 (56.2)
≥4026.1 (19.1)62.8 (38.0)62.7 (63.8)
value<0.0010.340.001

EducationDiploma/Bachelor degree37.4 (20.4)69.2 (31.6)93.7 (63.0)
Postgraduate/Doctoral38.7 (19.1)73.2 (32.4)102.0 (61.3)
value0.650.380.36

Marital statusMarried/cohabiting42.9 (21.2)73.6 (29.4)109.1 (66.3)
Single35.8 (19.2)68.3 (32.6)91.2 (59.7)
Divorced, separated, widowed31.9 (18.5)73.8 (39.0)83.7 (62.7)
value0.530.050.15

ChildrenNone42.4 (21.3)74.1 (29.2)108.4 (67.4)
One35.4 (19.9)69.5 (34.9)92.0 (61.4)
Two37.5 (17.8)67.8 (32.3)95.2 (53.4)
Three or more29.8 (21.1)68.1 (35.5)75.2 (70.6)
value0.040.670.12

Physical activityNever40.6 (19.9)74.1 (28.3)104.8 (62.7)
1-2 times/week33.1 (19.4)66.8 (37.4)86.1 (64.7)
More than 3 times/week41.7 (20.2)72.0 (27.9)103.8 (58.6)
value0.020.350.13

Alcohol useNot weekly35.7 (20.4)68.0 (34.9)90.8 (63.5)
1-2 glasses/week40.6 (19.6)74.2 (28.4)106.0 (62.5)
More than 3/week51 (23.8)71.3 (15.4)121.0 (50.5)
value0.100.410.19

PositionNurse39.6 (19.7)73.3 (30.4)102.3 (61.7)
Senior nurse/manager23.6 (16.7)48.4 (36.5)52.4 (50.6)
value<0.001<0.001<0.001

Intention to leaveHave left/considered leaving37.1 (19.7)70.2 (32.7)100.5 (65.2)
Never considered leaving38.1 (20.0)72.5 (31.7)97.6 (62.8)
value0.770.670.79

VariablePearson’s correlation coefficient ( value)

Overall work experience (years)−0.17 (0.02)−0.01 (0.86)−0.12 (0.08)
Length of employment in current position (years)−0.14 (0.05)−0.08 (0.27)−0.15 (0.04)
Job satisfaction (NAS 0–10)−0.14 (0.05)−0.09 (0.21)−0.15 (0.03)
General personal life satisfaction (NAS 0–10)0.02 (0.78)0.17 (0.02)0.11 (0.14)
Satisfaction from social relationships (NAS 0–10)−0.02 (0.77)0.05 (0.45)0.01 (0.99)
Satisfaction from therapeutic relations (NAS 0–10)−0.21 (<0.01)−0.23 (<0.01)−0.21 (<0.01)
Degree of emotional exhaustion (NAS 0–10)0.10 (0.14)0.13 (0.07)0.19 (<0.01)

value of independent -test or one-way ANOVA as appropriate.