Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2562957, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2562957
Review Article

The Association between Imaging Parameters of the Paraspinal Muscles, Spinal Degeneration, and Low Back Pain

1Physical Therapy Department, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
3Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Professions, Ono Academic College, Kiryat Ono, Israel
4Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Correspondence should be addressed to Leonid Kalichman; moc.liamtoh@namhcilak

Received 3 November 2016; Revised 10 January 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017; Published 20 March 2017

Academic Editor: Prescott B. Chase

Copyright © 2017 Leonid Kalichman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. F. Kader, D. Wardlaw, and F. W. Smith, “Correlation between the MRI changes in the lumbar multifidus muscles and leg pain,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 145–149, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Kalichman and D. J. Hunter, “Lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis: a review,” Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 69–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Kalichman, L. Li, D. H. Kim et al., “Facet joint osteoarthritis and low back pain in the community-based population,” Spine, vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 2560–2565, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J.-F. Zhang, C. Liu, H.-J. Yu, J.-J. Ma, H.-X. Cai, and S.-W. Fan, “Degenerative changes in the interspinous ligament,” Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 661–666, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Kalichman, P. Hodges, L. Li, A. Guermazi, and D. J. Hunter, “Changes in paraspinal muscles and their association with low back pain and spinal degeneration: CT study,” European Spine Journal, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1136–1144, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. G. Cooper, W. St Clair Forbes, and M. I. V. Jayson, “Radiographic demonstration of paraspinal muscle wasting in patients with chronic low back pain,” Rheumatology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 389–394, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Demoulin, J.-M. Crielaard, and M. Vanderthommen, “Spinal muscle evaluation in healthy individuals and low-back-pain patients: a literature review,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. F. McLoughlin, E. M. D’Arcy, M. M. Brittain, O. Fitzgerald, and J. B. Masterson, “The significance of fat and muscle areas in the lumbar paraspinal space: a CT study,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 275–278, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Hides, M. Saide, M. J. Stokes, G. A. Jull, and D. H. Cooper, “Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain,” Spine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Kalichman, A. Klindukhov, L. Li, and L. Linov, “Indices of paraspinal muscles degeneration: reliability and association with facet joint osteoarthritis: feasibility study,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 465–470, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. A. Fischer, D. Nanz, A. Shimakawa et al., “Quantification of muscle fat in patients with low back pain: comparison of multi-echo MR imaging with single-voxel MR spectroscopy,” Radiology, vol. 266, no. 2, pp. 555–563, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Yanik, B. Keyik, and I. Conkbayir, “Fatty degeneration of multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain and in asymptomatic volunteers: quantification with chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 771–778, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Mengiardi, M. R. Schmid, N. Boos et al., “Fat content of lumbar paraspinal muscles in patients with chronic low back pain and in asymptomatic volunteers: quantification with MR spectroscopy,” Radiology, vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 786–792, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. M. Laasonen, “Atrophy of sacrospinal muscle groups in patients with chronic, diffusely radiating lumbar back pain,” Neuroradiology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Keller, R. Gunderson, O. Reikerås, and J. I. Brox, “Reliability of computed tomography measurements of paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and density in patients with chronic low back pain,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 1455–1460, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Kjaer, T. Bendix, J. S. Sorensen, L. Korsholm, and C. Leboeuf-Yde, “Are MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?” BMC Medicine, vol. 5, article 2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Solgaard Sorensen, P. Kjaer, S. T. Jensen, and P. Andersen, “Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: reliability of qualitative evaluation of disc and muscle parameters,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 947–953, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. M. Schilling, J. O. Heidenreich, T. Schulte et al., “Changes of the fat/water ratio in the erector trunci muscle in patients with lumbar disc herniation: a comparative study with 1H-MRS,” Rofo, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 229–233, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Stokes, G. Rankin, and D. J. Newham, “Ultrasound imaging of lumbar multifidus muscle: normal reference ranges for measurements and practical guidance on the technique,” Manual Therapy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 116–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. A. Hides, C. A. Richardson, and G. A. Jull, “Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the lumbar multifidus muscle: comparison of two different modalities,” Spine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Coldron, M. Stokes, and K. Cook, “Lumbar multifidus muscle size does not differ whether ultrasound imaging is performed in prone or side lying,” Manual Therapy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 161–165, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. F. Tracy, M. J. Gibson, E. P. Szypryt, A. Rutherford, and E. N. Corlett, “The geometry of the muscles of the lumbar spine determined by magnetic resonance imaging,” Spine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 186–193, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. A. Cuellar, A. Wilson, C. L. Blizzard et al., “The assessment of abdominal and multifidus muscles and their role in physical function in older adults: a systematic review,” Physiotherapy, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 21–39, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Fortin, L. E. Gibbons, T. Videman, and M. C. Battié, “Do variations in paraspinal muscle morphology and composition predict low back pain in men?” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 880–887, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. D'Hooge, B. Cagnie, G. Crombez, G. Vanderstraeten, M. Dolphens, and L. Danneels, “Increased intramuscular fatty infiltration without differences in lumbar muscle cross-sectional area during remission of unilateral recurrent low back pain,” Manual Therapy, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 584–588, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Fortin, O. Dobrescu, M. Courtemanche et al., “Association between paraspinal muscle morphology, clinical symptoms, and functional status in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 232–239, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S.-T. Chan, P.-K. Fung, N.-Y. Ng et al., “Dynamic changes of elasticity, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltration of multifidus at different postures in men with chronic low back pain,” Spine Journal, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 381–388, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. E. Anderson, E. Quinn, E. Parker et al., “Associations of computed tomography-based trunk muscle size and density with balance and falls in older adults,” Journals of Gerontology A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 811–816, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. E. Hicks, E. M. Simonsick, T. B. Harris et al., “Cross-sectional associations between trunk muscle composition, back pain, and physical function in the health, aging and body composition study,” Journals of Gerontology. A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 882–887, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Takayama, T. Kita, H. Nakamura et al., “New predictive index for lumbar paraspinal muscle degeneration associated with aging,” Spine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. E84–E90, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Vettor, G. Milan, C. Franzin et al., “The origin of intermuscular adipose tissue and its pathophysiological implications,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 297, no. 5, pp. E987–E998, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Goutallier, J.-M. Postel, J. Bernageau, L. Lavau, and M.-C. Voisin, “Fatty muscle degeneration in cuff ruptures. Pre- and postoperative evaluation by CT scan,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 304, pp. 78–83, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Fortin, À. Lazáry, P. P. Varga, I. McCall, and M. C. Battié, “Paraspinal muscle asymmetry and fat infiltration in patients with symptomatic disc herniation,” European Spine Journal, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1452–1459, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. J. Hebert, P. Kjaer, J. M. Fritz, and B. F. Walker, “The relationship of lumbar multifidus muscle morphology to previous, current, and future low back pain: a 9-year population-based prospective cohort study,” Spine, vol. 39, no. 17, pp. 1417–1425, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Niemeläinen, M.-M. Briand, and M. C. Battié, “Substantial asymmetry in paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area in healthy adults questions its value as a marker of low back pain and pathology,” Spine, vol. 36, no. 25, pp. 2152–2157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. M. Sions, T. O. Velasco, D. S. Teyhen, and G. E. Hicks, “Reliability of ultrasound imaging for the assessment of lumbar multifidi thickness in older adults with chronic low back pain,” Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. A. Bulcke, J.-L. Termote, Y. Palmers, and D. Crolla, “Computed tomography of the human skeletal muscular system,” Neuroradiology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 127–136, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. L. Termote, A. Baert, D. Crolla, Y. Palmers, and J. A. Bulcke, “Computed tomography of the normal and pathologic muscular system,” Radiology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 439–444, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. F. Mannion, L. Kaser, E. Weber, A. Rhyner, J. Dvorak, and M. Muntener, “Influence of age and duration of symptoms on fibre type distribution and size of the back muscles in chronic low back pain patients,” European Spine Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 273–281, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Parkkola and M. Kormano, “Lumbar disc and back muscle degeneration on MRI: Correlation to age and body mass,” Journal of Spinal Disorders, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 86–92, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Thakar, L. Sivaraju, S. Aryan, D. Mohan, N. A. Sai Kiran, and A. S. Hegde, “Lumbar paraspinal muscle morphometry and its correlations with demographic and radiological factors in adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: a retrospective review of 120 surgically managed cases,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 679–685, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Ikezoe, N. Mori, M. Nakamura, and N. Ichihashi, “Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Roubenoff, “Sarcopenia and its implications for the elderly,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, supplement 3, pp. S40–S47, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. E. Kelley, B. S. Slasky, and J. Janosky, “Skeletal muscle density: effects of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 509–515, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Klineberg, A. Ching, G. Mundis, D. Burton, and S. Bess, “Diagnosis, treatment, and complications of adult lumbar disk herniation: evidence-based data for the healthcare professional,” Instructional Course Lectures, vol. 64, pp. 405–416, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. H. Kim, S.-H. Lee, and D. Y. Lee, “Changes in the cross-sectional area of multifidus and psoas in unilateral sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation,” Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 201–204, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. Yoshihara, Y. Shirai, Y. Nakayama, and S. Uesaka, “Histochemical changes in the multifidus muscle in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 622–626, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W.-P. Zhao, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Matsui, M. Kanamori, and T. Kimura, “Histochemistry and morphology of the multifidus muscle in lumbar disc herniation: comparative study between diseased and normal sides,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 2191–2199, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. J. Teichtahl, D. M. Urquhart, Y. Wang et al., “Fat infiltration of paraspinal muscles is associated with low back pain, disability, and structural abnormalities in community-based adults,” Spine Journal, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1593–1601, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. A. Danneels, G. G. Vanderstraeten, D. C. Cambier, E. E. Witvrouw, H. J. De Cuyper, and L. Danneels, “CT imaging of trunk muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects,” European Spine Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 266–272, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Hides, C. Gilmore, W. Stanton, and E. Bohlscheid, “Multifidus size and symmetry among chronic LBP and healthy asymptomatic subjects,” Manual Therapy, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Hodges, A. K. Holm, T. Hansson, and S. Holm, “Rapid atrophy of the lumbar multifidus follows experimental disc or nerve root injury,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 25, pp. 2926–2933, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Wang, S. B. Karki, S. Xu et al., “Quantitative MRI and X-ray analysis of disc degeneration and paraspinal muscle changes in degenerative spondylolisthesis,” Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 277–285, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. M. Backstrom, J. M. Whitman, and T. W. Flynn, “Lumbar spinal stenosis-diagnosis and management of the aging spine,” Manual Therapy, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 308–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. R. Jinkins, “Lumbosacral interspinous ligament rupture associated with acute intrinsic spinal muscle degeneration,” Journal Belge de Radiologie, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 226–230, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. M. Chakera and C. C. McCormick, “Radiology and low back pain,” Australian Family Physician, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 576–582, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  57. B. K. Cypress, “Characteristics of physician visits for back symptoms: a national perspective,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 389–395, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. K. L. Barker, D. R. Shamley, and D. Jackson, “Changes in the cross-sectional area of multifidus and psoas in patients with unilateral back pain: the relationship to pain and disability,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. E515–E519, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Fryer, T. Morris, and P. Gibbons, “Paraspinal muscles and intervertebral dysfunction: part two,” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 348–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. N. Bogduk, J. E. Macintosh, and M. J. Pearcy, “A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the upright position,” Spine, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 897–913, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. F. Mannion, B. R. Weber, J. Dvorak, D. Grob, and M. Muntener, “Fibre type characteristics of the lumbar paraspinal muscles in normal healthy subjects and in patients with low back pain,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 881–887, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Käser, A. F. Mannion, A. Rhyner, E. Weber, J. Dvorak, and M. Müntener, “Active therapy for chronic low back pain: part 2. effects on paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area, fiber type size, and distribution,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 909–919, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. H. Min, H. S. Choi, W. Ihl Rhee, and J. I. Lee, “Association between radiculopathy and lumbar multifidus atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 175–181, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Chung, “Effects of spinal stabilization exercise on the cross-sectional areas of the lumbar multifidus and psoas major muscles, pain intensity, and lumbar muscle strength of patients with degenerative disc disease,” Journal of Physical Therapy Science, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 579–582, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Hides, W. Stanton, S. McMahon, K. Sims, and C. Richardson, “Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain,” Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 101–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. Storheim, I. Holm, R. Gunderson, J. I. Brox, and K. Bø, “The effect of comprehensive group training on cross-sectional area, density, and strength of paraspinal muscles in patients sick-listed for subacute low back pain,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 271–279, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Keller, J. I. Brox, R. Gunderson, I. Holm, A. Friis, and O. Reikerås, “Trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and density in patients with chronic low back pain randomized to lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–8, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus