Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 2672435, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2672435
Review Article

Exercise and Protein Intake: A Synergistic Approach against Sarcopenia

1Department of Geriatrics, Neurosciences and Orthopedics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
2Department of Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Francesco Landi; ti.ttacinu@idnal.ocsecnarf

Received 13 July 2016; Revised 22 November 2016; Accepted 30 January 2017; Published 21 March 2017

Academic Editor: Ignacio Ara

Copyright © 2017 Anna Maria Martone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. L. Fisher, “Of worms and women: sarcopenia and its role in disability and mortality,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1185–1190, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. J. Cruz-Jentoft and F. Landi, “Sarcopenia,” Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 183–186, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Rolland, S. Czerwinski, G. A. Van Kan et al., “Sarcopenia: its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 433–450, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Landi, R. Calvani, M. Cesari et al., “Sarcopenia as the biological substrate of physical frailty,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 367–374, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. H. Rosenberg, “Summary comments,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1231–1233, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Calvani, F. Marini, M. Cesari et al., “Biomarkers for physical frailty and sarcopenia: state of the science and future developments,” Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 278–286, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Scott, A. Hayes, K. M. Sanders, D. Aitken, P. R. Ebeling, and G. Jones, “Operational definitions of sarcopenia and their associations with 5-year changes in falls risk in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 187–193, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Calvani, A. Miccheli, F. Landi et al., “Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia,” The Journal of Frailty & Aging, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38–53, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. R. Moore, “Keeping older muscle “young” through dietary protein and physical activity,” Advances in Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 599S–607S, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Paddon-Jones, K. R. Short, W. W. Campbell, E. Volpi, and R. R. Wolfe, “Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1562S–1566S, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. C. Anthony, T. G. Anthony, S. R. Kimball, and L. S. Jefferson, “Signaling pathways involved in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 856S–860S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. S. Katsanos, H. Kobayashi, M. Sheffield-Moore, A. Aarsland, and R. R. Wolfe, “Aging is associated with diminished accretion of muscle proteins after the ingestion of a small bolus of essential amino acids,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1065–1073, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Landi, R. Calvani, M. Tosato et al., “Protein intake and muscle health in old age: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence,” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 5, article 295, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. A. Fielding, B. Vellas, W. J. Evans et al., “Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 249–256, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Volpi, W. W. Campbell, J. T. Dwyer et al., “Is the optimal level of protein intake for older adults greater than the recommended dietary allowance?” The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 677–681, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. E. Morley, J. M. Argiles, W. J. Evans et al., “Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 391–396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Bauer, G. Biolo, T. Cederholm et al., “Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the prot-age study group,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 542–559, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Boirie, M. Dangin, P. Gachon, M.-P. Vasson, J.-L. Maubois, and B. Beaufrère, “Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 26, pp. 14930–14935, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Dangin, C. Guillet, C. Garcia-Rodenas et al., “The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humans,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 549, no. 2, pp. 635–644, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Pennings, Y. Boirie, J. M. G. Senden, A. P. Gijsen, H. Kuipers, and L. J. C. van Loon, “Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 997–1005, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Koopman, S. Walrand, M. Beelen et al., “Dietary protein digestion and absorption rates and the subsequent postprandial muscle protein synthetic response do not differ between young and elderly men,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 139, no. 9, pp. 1707–1713, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. van Vliet, N. A. Burd, and L. J. C. van Loon, “The skeletal muscle anabolic response to plant- versus animal-based protein consumption,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 9, pp. 1981–1991, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Yang, T. A. Churchward-Venne, N. A. Burd, L. Breen, M. A. Tarnopolsky, and S. M. Phillips, “Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 9, article no. 57, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Rondanelli, S. Perna, M. A. Faliva, G. Peroni, V. Infantino, and R. Pozzi, “Novel insights on intake of meat and prevention of sarcopenia: all reasons for an adequate consumption,” Nutricion Hospitalaria, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 2136–2143, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. B. Conley, J. W. Apolzan, H. J. Leidy, K. A. Greaves, E. Lim, and W. W. Campbell, “Effect of food form on postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations in older adults,” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 203–207, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. J. Caspersen, K. E. Powell, and G. Christenson, “Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research,” Public Health Reports, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. World Health Organization, Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44399/1/9789241599979_eng.pdf.
  28. G. D. Cartee, R. T. Hepple, M. M. Bamman, and J. R. Zierath, “Exercise promotes healthy aging of skeletal muscle,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1034–1047, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Marzetti, R. Calvani, M. Cesari et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia of aging: from signaling pathways to clinical trials,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2288–2301, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. Landi, E. Marzetti, A. M. Martone, R. Bernabei, and G. Onder, “Exercise as a remedy for sarcopenia,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Pasini, S. Le Douairon Lahaye, V. Flati et al., “Effects of treadmill exercise and training frequency on anabolic signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of aged rats,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Calvani, A.-M. Joseph, P. J. Adhihetty et al., “Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy,” Biological Chemistry, vol. 394, no. 3, pp. 393–414, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J.-S. Kang and R. S. Krauss, “Muscle stem cells in developmental and regenerative myogenesis,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. S. Bowen, G. Schuler, and V. Adams, “Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training,” Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 197–207, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. J. Nicklas, F.-C. Hsu, T. J. Brinkley et al., “Exercise training and plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in elderly people,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2045–2052, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. R. P. Nunes, L. C. Barcelos, A. A. Oliveira et al., “Effect of resistance training on muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in postmenopausal women: controlled and randomized clinical trial of efficacy of training volume,” Age, vol. 38, no. 2, article 40, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Mavros, S. Kay, K. A. Simpson et al., “Reductions in C-reactive protein in older adults with type 2 diabetes are related to improvements in body composition following a randomized controlled trial of resistance training,” Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Marzetti, L. Groban, S. E. Wohlgemuth et al., “Effects of short-term GH supplementation and treadmill exercise training on physical performance and skeletal muscle apoptosis in old rats,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 294, no. 2, pp. R558–R567, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Egan and J. R. Zierath, “Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 162–184, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. J. Cruz-Jentoft, F. Landi, S. M. Schneider et al., “Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS),” Age and Ageing, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 48–759, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. E. P. Deutz, J. M. Bauer, R. Barazzoni et al., “Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 929–936, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Tieland, M. L. Dirks, N. van der Zwaluw et al., “Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 713–719, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Facer-Childs and R. Brandstaetter, “The impact of circadian phenotype and time since awakening on diurnal performance in athletes,” Current Biology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 518–522, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. V. D. Longo and S. Panda, “Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time-restricted feeding in healthy lifespan,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1048–1059, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Mattis and A. Sehgal, “Circadian rhythms, sleep, and disorders of aging,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 192–203, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Simmons, J. D. Fluckey, and S. E. Riechman, “Cumulative muscle protein synthesis and protein intake requirements,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 36, pp. 17–43, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Biolo, K. D. Tipton, S. Klein, and R. R. Wolfe, “An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein,” American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 273, no. 1, pp. E122–E129, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. D. Andrews, D. A. MacLean, and S. E. Riechman, “Protein intake for skeletal muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in seniors,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 362–372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Marzetti, R. Calvani, F. Landi et al., “Innovative medicines initiative: the SPRINTT project,” The Journal of Frailty & Aging, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 207–208, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  50. E. Marzetti, R. Calvani, M. Cesari et al., “Operationalization of the physical frailty & sarcopenia syndrome: rationale and clinical implementation,” Translational Medicine @ UniSa, vol. 13, pp. 29–32, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  51. P. M. Cawthon, K. W. Peters, M. D. Shardell et al., “Cutpoints for low appendicular lean mass that identify older adults with clinically significant weakness,” Journals of Gerontology. Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 567–575, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Guralnik, E. M. Simonsick, L. Ferrucci et al., “A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. M85–M94, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Pahor, J. M. Guralnik, W. T. Ambrosius et al., “Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 311, no. 23, pp. 2387–2396, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J.-P. Michel, A. J. Cruz-Jentoft, and T. Cederholm, “Frailty, exercise and nutrition,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 375–387, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. A. van Kan, Y. Rolland, M. Houles, S. Gillette-Guyonnet, M. Soto, and B. Vellas, “The assessment of frailty in older adults,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 275–286, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. I. T. D. Correia, R. A. Hegazi, T. Higashiguchi et al., “Evidence-based recommendations for addressing malnutrition in health care: an updated strategy from the feedM.E. global study group,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 544–550, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus