Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2746471, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2746471
Review Article

Scientific Evidence for Different Options for GDM Screening and Management: Controversies and Review of the Literature

1Department of Experimental Clinical and Medical Science, DISM, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
2Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Vincenzo Berghella; ude.nosreffej@allehgreb.oznecniv

Received 3 February 2017; Revised 28 February 2017; Accepted 8 March 2017; Published 10 April 2017

Academic Editor: Erich Cosmi

Copyright © 2017 Claudia Caissutti and Vincenzo Berghella. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. D. Mackeen and M. Lott, “Gestational diabetes,” in Maternal-Fetal Evidence Based Guidelines, V. Berghella, Ed., chapter 5, CRC Press, 3rd edition, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. Kim, K. M. Newton, and R. H. Knopp, “Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1862–1868, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Di Mascio, E. R. Magro-Malosso, G. Saccone, G. D. Marhefka, and V. Berghella, “Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics, “Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 122, article 406, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Hod, A. Kapur, D. A. Sacks et al., “The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: a pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 131, supplement 3, pp. S173–S211, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group, B. E. Metzger, L. P. Lowe et al., “Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, article 1991, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel, B. E. Metzger, S. G. Gabbe et al., “International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 676–682, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. World Health Organization, Diagnostic Criteria and Classification of Hyperglycaemia First Detected in Pregnancy, 2013.
  9. American Diabetes Association, “2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 40, article S11, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  10. Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee and A. Y. Cheng, “Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Introduction,” Canadian Journal of Diabetes, vol. 37, supplement 1, pp. S1–S3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. NICE, NICE Guidelines. Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management from Preconception to the Postnatal Period, 2015.
  12. P. A. M. Weiss, M. Haeusler, F. Kainer, P. Purstner, and J. Haas, “Toward universal criteria for gestational diabetes: relationships between seventy-five and one hundred gram glucose loads and between capillary and venous glucose concentrations,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 830–835, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. B. O'Sullivan, S. S. Gellis, and B. O. Tenney, “Gestational blood glucose levels in normal and potentially diabetic women related to the birth weight of their infants,” Diabetes, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 466–470, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. R. Coustan and S. B. Lewis, “Insulin therapy for gestational diabetes,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 306–310, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. J. Thompson, K. B. Porter, D. J. Gunnells, P. C. Wagner, and J. A. Spinnato, “Prophylactic insulin in the management of gestational diabetes,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 960–964, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. A. Crowther, J. E. Hiller, J. R. Moss, A. J. McPhee, W. S. Jeffries, and J. S. Robinson, “Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 24, pp. 2477–2486, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. B. Landon, C. Y. Spong, E. Thom et al., “A multicenter, randomized trial of treatment for mild gestational diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 14, pp. 1339–1348, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. M. Casey, E. L. Duryea, M. Abbassi-Ghanavati et al., “Glyburide in women with mild gestational diabetes: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 303–309, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. J. Meltzer, J. Snyder, J. R. Penrod, M. Nudi, and L. Morin, “Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis: a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing costs of one-step and two-step methods,” BJOG, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 407–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. Sevket, S. Ates, O. Uysal, T. Molla, R. Dansuk, and S. Kelekci, “To evaluate the prevalence and clinical outcomes using a one-step method versus a two-step method to screen gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. M. Scifres, K. Z. Abebe, K. A. Jones et al., “Gestational Diabetes Diagnostic Methods (GD2M) pilot randomized trial,” Maternal and Child Health Journal, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1472–1480, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Duran, S. Sáenz, and M. Torrejón, “Introduction of IADPSG criteria for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus results in improved pregnancy outcomes at a lower cost in a large cohort of pregnant women: the St. Carlos Gestational Diabetes study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 37, pp. 2442–2450, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. P. Fuller and A. F. Borgida, “Gestational diabetes mellitus screening using the one-step versus two-step method in a high-risk practice,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 148–150, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Liu, Y. Chen, Q. Zhou, H. Shi, and W. W. Cheng, “Utilization of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria vs. a two-step approach to screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women with twin pregnancies,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 367–373, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Oriot, P. Selvais, J. Radikov et al., “Assessing the incidence of gestational diabetes and neonatal outcomes using the IADPSG guidelines in comparison with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria in a Belgian general hospital,” Acta Clinica Belgica, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y.-M. Wei, H.-X. Yang, W.-W. Zhu, H.-Y. Yang, H.-X. Li, and A. Kapur, “Effects of intervention to mild GDM on outcomes,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 928–931, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T.-H. Hung and T.-T. Hsieh, “The Effects of Implementing the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes on maternal and neonatal outcomes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, Article ID e0122261, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. M. Kong, K. Lim, and D. M. Thompson, “Evaluation of the International Association of the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group New Criteria: gestational diabetes project,” Canadian Journal of Diabetes, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 128–132, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Assaf-Balut, E. Bordiú, L. Del Valle et al., “The impact of switching to the one-step method for GDM diagnosis on the rates of postpartum screening attendance and glucose disorder in women with prior GDM. The San Carlos Gestational Study,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1360–1364, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Klara Feldman, R. S. Tieu, and L. Yasumura, “Gestational diabetes screening the international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study groups compared with carpenter-coustan screening,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Lapolla, M. G. Dalfrà, E. Ragazzi, A. P. De Cata, and D. Fedele, “New International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommendations for diagnosing gestational diabetes compared with former criteria. retrospective study on pregnancy outcome,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1074–1077, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Bodmer-Roy, L. Morin, J. Cousineau, and E. Rey, “Pregnancy outcomes in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus according to the international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 746–752, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Benhalima, M. Hanssens, R. Devlieger, J. Verhaeghe, and C. Mathieu, “Analysis of pregnancy outcomes using the new IADPSG recommendation compared with the carpenter and coustan criteria in an area with a low prevalence of gestational diabetes,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2013, Article ID 248121, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. K. Ethridge, P. M. Catalano, and T. P. Waters, “Perinatal outcomes associated with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes made by the international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 571–578, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Liao, J. Mei, W. Song et al., “The impact of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) fasting glucose diagnostic criterion on the prevalence and outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 341–351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Mayo, N. Melamed, H. Vandenberghe, and H. Berger, “The impact of adoption of the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group criteria for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 224–224.e9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. L. Meek, H. B. Lewis, C. Patient, H. R. Murphy, and D. Simmons, “Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: falling through the net,” Diabetologia, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 2003–2012, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Tward, J. Barrett, H. Berger et al., “Does gestational diabetes affect fetal growth and pregnancy outcome in twin pregnancies?” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 214, no. 5, pp. 653.e1–653.e8, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Garner, N. Okun, E. Keely et al., “A randomized controlled trial of strict glycemic control and tertiary level obstetric care versus routine obstetric care in the management of gestational diabetes: a pilot study,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 190–195, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. O. Langer, D. L. Conway, M. D. Berkus, E. M.-J. Xenakis, and O. Gonzales, “A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 16, pp. 1134–1138, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. Mecacci, L. Carignani, R. Cioni et al., “Maternal metabolic control and perinatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes treated with regular or lispro insulin: comparison with non-diabetic pregnant women,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. U. M. Schaefer-Graf, S. L. Kjos, O. H. Fauzan et al., “A randomized trial evaluating a predominately fetal growth-based strategy to guide management of gestational diabetes in Caucasian women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 297–302, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Anjalakshi, V. Balaji, M. S. Balaji, and V. Seshiah, “A prospective study comparing insulin and glibenclamide in gestational diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian women,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 474–475, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Ijäs, M. Vääräsmäki, L. Morin-Papunen et al., “Metformin should be considered in the treatment of gestational diabetes: a prospective randomised study,” BJOG, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 880–885, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. Balaji, M. S. Balaji, C. Alexander et al., “Premixed insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) versus premixed human insulin 30 (BHI 30) in gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized open-label controlled study,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 529–532, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Mukhopadhyay, T. B. Sankar, A. Kyal, and P. D. Saha, “Oral hypoglyceamic glibenclamide: can it be a substitute to insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus? A comparative study,” Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 28–31, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  47. S. Niromanesh, A. Alavi, F. R. Sharbaf, N. Amjadi, S. Moosavi, and S. Akbari, “Metformin compared with insulin in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 422–429, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. C. Silva, C. Pacheco, J. Bizato, B. V. de Souza, T. E. Ribeiro, and A. M. Bertini, “Metformin compared with glyburide for the management of gestational diabetes,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. Mesdaghinia, M. Samimi, Z. Homaei, F. Saberi, S. G. A. Moosavi, and M. Yaribakht, “Comparison of newborn outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus treated with metformin or insulin: a randomised blinded trial,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 327–333, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. P. Spaulonci, L. S. Bernardes, T. C. Trindade, M. Zugaib, and R. P. V. Francisco, “Randomized trial of metformin vs insulin in the management of gestational diabetes,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 34.e1–34.e7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. K. Nicholson, L. M. Wilson, C. T. Witkop et al., “Therapeutic management, delivery, and postpartum risk assessment and screening in gestational diabetes,” Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, no. 162, pp. 1–96, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Nankervis, H. D. McIntyre, R. G. Moses, G. P. Ross, and L. K. Callaway, “Testing for gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 5, p. e64, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Behrashi, M. Samimi, T. Ghasemi, F. Saberi, and F. Atoof, “Comparison of glibenclamide and insulin on neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 88, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus