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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 2936461, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2936461
Research Article

A Novel Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus t11469 and a Poultry Endemic Strain t002 (ST5) Are Present in Chicken in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
4Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
5Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
6Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Tara C. Smith; ude.tnek@671timst

Received 6 September 2017; Revised 23 October 2017; Accepted 29 October 2017; Published 19 November 2017

Academic Editor: Paola Di Carlo

Copyright © 2017 Amos Nworie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a hospital-associated pathogen to an organism commonly found in the community and in livestock reflects an organism well-equipped to survive in diverse environments and adjust to different environmental conditions including antimicrobial use. Methods. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA in poultry in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from 1800 birds on 9 different farms within the state. Positive isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility and molecular typing. Results. Prevalence in birds was 13.7% (247/1800). MRSA prevalence in poultry was 0.8%. The prevalence of MRSA in broilers and layers was 1.2% and 0.4%, respectively. All tested isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Molecular analysis of the isolates revealed 3 spa types: t002, t084, and a novel spa type, t11469. The novel spa type t11469 belonged to sequence type ST5. Conclusion. The detection of t002 in chicken suggests the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in poultry in Ebonyi State. The detection of the new spa type t11469 in poultry that has not been characterised to ascertain its pathogenic potential remains a cause for concern, especially as some were found to carry PVL genes, a putative virulence factor in staphylococcal infection.