A Modified Translaminar Osseous Channel-Assisted Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for Highly Migrated and Sequestrated Disc Herniations of the Upper Lumbar: Clinical Outcomes, Surgical Indications, and Technical Considerations
Intraoperative C-arm images of the procedure. Insertion of the working sheath toward the right lower laminar of the lumbar 1 vertebra. Anteroposterior radiograph showing the downward inclination of the working sheath lying at the medial pedicular line (a). Lateral radiograph showing the working sheath piercing the lamina (b).
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