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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3083141, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3083141
Research Article

Transverse and Oblique Long Bone Fracture Evaluation by Low Order Ultrasonic Guided Waves: A Simulation Study

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
2Laboratoire d’Imagerie Biomédicale, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM UMR-S 1146, CNRS UMR 7371, Sorbonne Université, 75006 Paris, France
3State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
4Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) of Shanghai, Shanghai 200032, China
5Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Dean Ta; nc.ude.naduf@adt

Received 4 October 2016; Accepted 28 November 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Qing-Hua Huang

Copyright © 2017 Ying Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ultrasonic guided waves have recently been used in fracture evaluation and fracture healing monitoring. An axial transmission technique has been used to quantify the impact of the gap breakage width and fracture angle on the amplitudes of low order guided wave modes and under a 100 kHz narrowband excitation. In our two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) simulation, the long bones are modeled as three layers with a soft tissue overlay and marrow underlay. The simulations of the transversely and obliquely fractured long bones show that the amplitudes of both and decrease as the gap breakage widens. Fixing the crack width, the increase of the fracture angle relative to the cross section perpendicular to the long axis enhances the amplitude of , while the amplitude of shows a nonmonotonic trend with the decrease of the fracture angle. The amplitude ratio between the and modes is used to quantitatively evaluate the fracture width and angles. The study suggests that the low order guided wave modes and have potentials for transverse and oblique bone fracture evaluation and fracture healing monitoring.