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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3257235, 7 pages
Review Article

The Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Source of Biomarkers to Enhance Efficiency of Orthodontic and Functional Treatment of Growing Patients

1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Mariana Caires Sobral de Aguiar; moc.liamtoh@larbosciram

Received 3 November 2016; Revised 18 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 23 January 2017

Academic Editor: Enita Nakaš

Copyright © 2017 Mariana Caires Sobral de Aguiar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt), while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes) in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment.