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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3925024, 9 pages
Research Article

The Use of Xanthan Gum as Vaccine Adjuvant: An Evaluation of Immunostimulatory Potential in BALB/c Mice and Cytotoxicity In Vitro

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
2Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
3Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Daiane Drawanz Hartwig; moc.liamg@giwtrahenaiad

Received 26 January 2017; Revised 11 April 2017; Accepted 16 April 2017; Published 7 May 2017

Academic Editor: Jinsong Ren

Copyright © 2017 Rodrigo Andrade Schuch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The successful production of new, safe, and effective vaccines that generate immunological memory is directly related to adjuvant feature, which is responsible for increasing and/or modulating the immune response. Several compounds display adjuvant activity, including carbohydrates. These compounds play important roles in the immune response, as well as having biocompatible properties in vaccine formulations. One such carbohydrate is xanthan gum, a polysaccharide that is produced by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas spp., which has adjuvant attributes. This study evaluated the immune response induced by xanthan gum associated with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice, which were subcutaneously immunized, in terms of antibody production (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3), and assessed the levels of IFN-γ in the splenocyte culture using indirect ELISA. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro cytotoxicity of xanthan in the embryo fibroblasts cell line of the NIH/3T3 mouse by MTT assay and propidium iodide uptake assay. The mice immunized with ovalbumin plus xanthan gum exhibited higher antibody IgG1 responses than control groups. Furthermore, the xanthan polysaccharide was capable of increasing the immunogenicity of antigens by producing IFN-γ and did not exhibit cytotoxicity effects in NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, considered a promising candidate for vaccine adjuvant.