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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 4378328, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4378328
Research Article

Impact of Fish Oil Supplementation and Interruption of Fructose Ingestion on Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis of Rats Drinking Different Concentrations of Fructose

1Department of Physiological Sciences, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 8840-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
2Multicenter Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 8840-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Alex Rafacho; rb.csfu@ohcafar.xela

Received 23 April 2017; Revised 20 June 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017; Published 8 August 2017

Academic Editor: Paul M. Tulkens

Copyright © 2017 Paola M. Sulis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Supplemental figure 1: Growth rate. The average normalized food intake (a) and growth rate (b,c) in rats drinking water enriched with 10% fructose (w/v) (a,b) and 30% fructose (w/v) (c). Fructose ingestion lasted 9 consecutive weeks, and fish oil supplementation (1 g/Kg, b.m.) was introduced 30 days after the initiation of fructose ingestion and remained until the end of the ninth week. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Asterisk (*) indicates significantly different compared with the respective control groups (the C and FO groups) using ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test (p<0.05, n=10-20). b.m.; body mass.

Supplemental figure 2: Liver histology. The panoramic 10X objective (a,c,e,g,i,k,m) and detailed 40X objective (b,d,f,h,j,l,n) representative images from all groups (only in the experimental design with 30 % fructose ingestion). Only one liver section from the F group (g,h) and one from the FR group (m,n) presented signs of fat accumulation, that were less pronounced in the FR group. Sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and mounted with entellan. The images were acquired with a CCD camera coupled to a BX-60 Olympus photomicroscope.

Supplemental figure 3: Adipocyte size after ingestion of 30% fructose. The panoramic 10X objective (a) representative images from all groups (only in the experimental design with 30 % fructose ingestion). Sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and mounted with entellan. The images were acquired with a CCD camera coupled to a BX-60 Olympus photomicroscope. The adipocyte area distribution per range (b) and mean adipocyte area (c). Fructose ingestion lasted 9 consecutive weeks and fish oil supplementation (1 g/Kg, b.m.) was introduced 30 days after the initiation of fructose ingestion and remained until the end of ninth week. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. (n=6).

Supplemental figure 4: Adipocyte size after discontinuation of 30% fructose ingestion. The adipocyte area distribution per range (a) and mean adipocyte area (b). Fructose ingestion lasted 9 consecutive weeks and fish oil supplementation (1 g/Kg, b.m.) was introduced 30 days after the initiation of fructose ingestion and remained until the end of ninth week. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. (n=6).

  1. Supplementary Material