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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 4595016, 9 pages
Research Article

Epidemiological Distribution and Subtype Analysis of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Syndromes and Symptoms Based on TCM Theories

1Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Classical Theory, Ministry of Education, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
2National Key Subject of TCM Psychology, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
3Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology, Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China
4School of Preclinical Medical Sciences, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China
5The Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China
6The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
7The Central Hospital of Jinan City, Jinan, Shandong Province, China
8Department of Psychology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Peng Sun; moc.621@963gnepnus

Received 28 November 2016; Revised 6 May 2017; Accepted 23 May 2017; Published 15 June 2017

Academic Editor: Adair Santos

Copyright © 2017 Mingqi Qiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We performed an epidemiological investigation of subjects with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) to identify the clinical distribution of the major syndromes and symptoms. The pathogenesis of PMDD mainly involves the dysfunction of liver conveyance and dispersion. Excessive liver conveyance and dispersion are associated with liver-qi invasion syndrome, while insufficient liver conveyance and dispersion are expressed as liver-qi depression syndrome. Additionally, a nonconditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the symptomatic features of liver-qi invasion and liver-qi depression. As a result of this analysis, two subtypes of PMDD are proposed, namely, excessive liver conveyance and dispersion (liver-qi invasion syndrome) and insufficient liver conveyance and dispersion (liver-qi depression syndrome). Our findings provide an epidemiological foundation for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of PMDD based on the identification of different types.