Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 4650182, 17 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4650182
Review Article

Conservative Nonhormonal Options for the Treatment of Male Infertility: Antibiotics, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Antioxidants

1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
2Department of Surgery, Urology Section, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Sandro La Vignera; ti.tcinu@arengivalordnas

Received 2 November 2016; Revised 4 December 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016; Published 9 January 2017

Academic Editor: Yujiang Fang

Copyright © 2017 Aldo E. Calogero et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The nonhormonal medical treatment can be divided into empirical, when the cause has not been identified, and nonempirical, if the pathogenic mechanism causing male infertility can be solved or ameliorated. The empirical nonhormonal medical treatment has been proposed for patients with idiopathic or noncurable oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and for normozoospermic infertile patients. Anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, and antioxidant compounds, oligo elements, and vitamin supplementation may be prescribed. Infection, inflammation, and/or increased oxidative stress often require a specific treatment with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or antioxidants. Combined therapies can contribute to improve sperm quality.