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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 4793465, 7 pages
Research Article

Response Detection of Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer to Clinically Utilised and Novel Treatments by Monitoring Phospholipid Metabolism

School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Tim A. D. Smith;

Received 22 March 2017; Accepted 30 May 2017; Published 22 June 2017

Academic Editor: Christian Schwentner

Copyright © 2017 Tim A. D. Smith et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Androgen receptor (AR) activation is the primary driving factor in prostate cancer which is initially responsive to castration but then becomes resistant (castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)). CRPC cells still retain the functioning AR which can be targeted by other therapies. A recent promising development is the use of inhibitors (Epi-1) of protein-protein interaction to inhibit AR-activated signalling. Translating novel therapies into the clinic requires sensitive early response indicators. Here potential response markers are explored. Growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells with flutamide, paclitaxel, and Epi-1 was measured using the MTT assay. To simulate choline-PET scans, pulse-chase experiments were carried out with -methyl]choline and proportion of phosphorylated activity was determined after treatment with growth inhibitory concentrations of each drug. Extracts from treated cells were also subject to 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Cells treated with flutamide demonstrated decreased -methyl]choline phosphorylation, whilst the proportion of phosphorylated -methyl]choline that was present in the lipid fraction was increased in Epi-1-treated cells. Phospholipid breakdown products, glycerophosphorylcholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine levels, were shown by 31P-NMR spectroscopy to be decreased to undetectable levels in cells treated with Epi-1. LNCaP cells responding to treatment with novel protein-protein interaction inhibitors suggest that 31P-NMR spectroscopy may be useful in detecting response to this promising therapy.