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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4843065, 12 pages
Research Article

A Comparison of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Incorporated with Manuka Honey of Varying UMF

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Parks College of Engineering, Aviation, and Technology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
3Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Scott A. Sell

Received 8 December 2016; Revised 2 February 2017; Accepted 5 February 2017; Published 23 February 2017

Academic Editor: Viness Pillay

Copyright © 2017 Katherine R. Hixon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. Manuka honey (MH) is an antibacterial agent specific to the islands of New Zealand containing both hydrogen peroxide and a Unique Manuka Factor (UMF). Although the antibacterial properties of MH have been studied, the effect of varying UMF of MH incorporated into tissue engineered scaffolds have not. Therefore, this study was designed to compare silk fibroin cryogels and electrospun scaffolds incorporated with a 5% MH concentration of various UMF. Methods. Characteristics such as porosity, bacterial clearance and adhesion, and cytotoxicity were compared. Results. Pore diameters for all cryogels were between 51 and 60 µm, while electrospun scaffolds were 10 µm. Cryogels of varying UMF displayed clearance of approximately 0.16 cm for E. coli and S. aureus. In comparison, the electrospun scaffolds clearance ranged between 0.5 and 1 cm. A glucose release of 0.5 mg/mL was observed for the first 24 hours by all scaffolds, regardless of UMF. With respect to cytotoxicity, neither scaffold caused the cell number to drop below 20,000. Conclusions. Overall, when comparing the effects of the various UMF within the two scaffolds, no significant differences were observed. This suggests that the fabricated scaffolds in this study displayed similar bacterial effects regardless of the UMF value.