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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4902084, 10 pages
Research Article

Increased Circulating Endothelial Microparticles Associated with PAK4 Play a Key Role in Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury Process

1Emergency Department, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China
2Emergency Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong 266100, China
3Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Chengjin Gao

Received 27 August 2016; Revised 30 November 2016; Accepted 14 December 2016; Published 5 February 2017

Academic Editor: Sulagna Das

Copyright © 2017 Shuming Pan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inappropriate mechanical ventilation (MV) can result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Probing mechanisms of VILI and searching for effective methods are current areas of research focus on VILI. The present study aimed to probe into mechanisms of endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in VILI and the protective effects of Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against VILI. In this study, C57BL/6 and TLR4KO mouse MV models were used to explore the function of EMPs associated with p21 activated kinases-4 (PAK-4) in VILI. Both the C57BL/6 and TLR4 KO groups were subdivided into a mechanical ventilation (MV) group, a TMP + MV group, and a control group. After four hours of high tidal volume (20 ml/kg) MV, the degree of lung injury and the protective effects of TMP were assessed. VILI inhibited the cytoskeleton-regulating protein of PAK4 and was accompanied by an increased circulating EMP level. The intercellular junction protein of β-catenin was also decreased accompanied by a thickening alveolar wall, increased lung W/D values, and neutrophil infiltration. TMP alleviated VILI via decreasing circulating EMPs, stabilizing intercellular junctions, and alleviating neutrophil infiltration.